Pausanias, Description of Greece, 10.25-10.26

ὑπὲρ δὲ τὴν Κασσοτίδα ἐστὶν οἴκημα γραφὰς ἔχον τῶν Πολυγνώτου, ἀνάθημα μὲν Κνιδίων, καλεῖται δὲ ὑπὸ Δελφῶν Λέσχη, ὅτι ἐνταῦθα συνιόντες τὸ ἀρχαῖον τά τε σπουδαιότερα διελέγοντο καὶ ὁπόσα μυθώδη: τοιαῦτ᾽ εἶναι πολλὰ ἀνὰ πᾶσαν τὴν Ἑλλάδα Ὅμηρος ἐν Μελανθοῦς λοιδορίᾳ πρὸς Ὀδυσσέα ἐδήλωσεν:“οὐδ᾽ ἐθέλεις εὕδειν χαλκήιον ἐς δόμον ἐλθὼν ἠέ που ἐς λέσχην, ἀλλ᾽ ἐνθάδε πόλλ᾽ ἀγορεύεις.[2] ἐς τοῦτο οὖν ἐσελθόντι τὸ οἴκημα τὸ μὲν σύμπαν τὸ ἐν δεξιᾷ τῆς γραφῆς Ἴλιός τέ ἐστιν ἑαλωκυῖα καὶ ἀπόπλους ὁ Ἑλλήνων. Μενελάῳ δὲ τὰ ἐς τὴν ἀναγωγὴν εὐτρεπίζουσι, καὶ ναῦς ἐστι γεγραμμένη καὶ ἄνδρες ἐν τοῖς ναύταις καὶ ἀναμὶξ παῖδες, ἐν μέσῃ δέ ἐστι τῇ νηὶ ὁ κυβερνήτης Φρόντις κοντοὺς δύο ἔχων. Ὅμηρος δὲ Νέστορα ἐποίησεν ἄλλα τε διαλεγόμενον πρὸς Τηλέμαχον καὶ περὶ τοῦ Φρόντιδος: πατρὸς μὲν Ὀνήτορος, Μενελάου δὲ ἦν κυβερνήτης, δοκιμώτατος δὲ ἐς τὴν τέχνην, καὶ ὡς Σούνιον ἤδη τὸ ἐν τῇ Ἀττικῇ παραπλέοντα ἐπέλαβεν αὐτὸν τὸ χρεών: καὶ τέως ὁμοῦ Νέστορι ὁ Μενέλαος πλέων τότε κατὰ αἰτίαν ἀπελείφθη ταύτην, ἵνα μνήματος καὶ ὅσα ἐπὶ νεκροῖς ἄλλα ἀξιώσειε τὸν Φρόντιν.[3] οὗτός τε οὖν ἐν τοῦ Πολυγνώτου τῇ γραφῇ καὶ ὑπ᾽ αὐτὸν Ἰθαιμένης τέ τις κομίζων ἐσθῆτα καὶ Ἐχοίαξ διὰ τῆς ἀποβάθρας κατιών ἐστιν, ὑδρίαν ἔχων χαλκῆν. καταλύουσι δὲ καὶ τοῦ Μενελάου τὴν σκηνὴν οὐ πόρρω τῆς νεὼς οὖσαν Πολίτης καὶ Στρόφιός τε καὶ Ἄλφιος. καὶ ἄλλην διαλύων σκηνήν ἐστιν Ἀμφίαλος, ὑπὸ δὲ τοῦ Ἀμφιάλου τοῖς ποσὶ κάθηται παῖς: ἐπίγραμμα δὲ οὐκ ἔστι τῷ παιδί, γένεια δὲ μόνῳ τῷ Φρόντιδι. καὶ μόνου τούτου τὸ ὄνομα ἐκ τῆς ἐς Ὀδυσσέα ποιήσεως ἔμαθε, τῶν δὲ ἄλλων ἐμοὶ δοκεῖν τὰ ὀνόματα συνέθηκεν αὐτὸς ὁ Πολύγνωτος.[4] Βρισηὶς δὲ ἑστῶσα καὶ Διομήδη τε ὑπὲρ αὐτῆς καὶ Ἶφις πρὸ ἀμφοτέρων ἐοίκασιν ἀνασκοπούμενοι τὸ Ἑλένης εἶδος. κάθηται δὲ αὐτή τε ἡ Ἑλένη καὶ Εὐρυβάτης πλησίον: τὸν δὲ Ὀδυσσέως εἶναι κήρυκα εἰκάζομεν, οὐ μὴν εἶχεν ἤδη γένεια. θεράπαινα δὲ Ἠλέκτρα καὶ Πανθαλίς, ἡ μὲν τῇ Ἑλένῃ παρέστηκεν, ἡ δὲ ὑποδεῖ τὴν δέσποιναν ἡ Ἠλέκτρα: διάφορα δὲ καὶ ταῦτα τὰ ὀνόματα ἢ Ὅμηρος ἔθετο ἐν Ἰλιάδι, ἔνθα καὶ Ἑλένην καὶ ἰούσας ὁμοῦ τῇ Ἑλένῃ τὰς δούλας ἐπὶ τὸ τεῖχος πεποίηκεν. [5] κάθηται δὲ ὑπὲρ τὴν Ἑλένην πορφυροῦν ἀνὴρ ἀμπεχόμενος ἱμάτιον καὶ ἐς τὰ μάλιστα κατηφής: Ἕλενον εἶναι τεκμήραιο ἂν τὸν Πριάμου καὶ πρὶν ἢ καὶ τὸ ἐπίγραμμα ἐπιλέξασθαι. πλησίον δὲ τοῦ Ἑλένου Μέγης ἐστί: τέτρωται δὲ τὸν βραχίονα ὁ Μέγης, καθὰ δὴ καὶ Λέσχεως ὁ Αἰσχυλίνου Πυρραῖος ἐν Ἰλίου πέρσιδι ἐποίησε: τρωθῆναι δὲ ὑπὸ τὴν μάχην τοῦτον, ἣν ἐν τῇ νυκτὶ ἐμαχέσαντο οἱ Τρῶες, ὑπὸ Ἀδμήτου φησὶ τοῦ Αὐγείου. [6] γέγραπται δὲ καὶ Λυκομήδης παρὰ τὸν Μέγητα ὁ Κρέοντος, ἔχων τραῦμα ἐπὶ τῷ καρπῷ: Λέσχεως δ᾽ οὕτω φησὶν αὐτὸν ὑπὸ Ἀγήνορος τρωθῆναι. δῆλα οὖν ὡς ἄλλως γε οὐκ ἂν ὁ Πολύγνωτος ἔγραψεν οὕτω τὰ ἕλκη σφίσιν, εἰ μὴ ἐπελέξατο τὴν ποίησιν τοῦ Λέσχεω: προσεπέθηκε μέντοι καὶ σφυροῦ τῷ Λυκομήδει καὶ τρίτον τραῦμα ἐν τῇ κεφαλῇ. τέτρωται δὲ καὶ Εὐρύαλος ὁ Μηκιστέως κεφαλήν τε καὶ ἐπὶ τῇ χειρὶ τὸν καρπόν.[7] οὗτοι μὲν δὴ ἀνωτέρω τῆς Ἑλένης εἰσὶν ἐν τῇ γραφῇ: ἐφεξῆς δὲ τῇ Ἑλένῃ μήτηρ τε ἡ Θησέως ἐν χρῷ κεκαρμένη καὶ παίδων τῶν Θησέως Δημοφῶν ἐστι φροντίζων, ὅσα γε ἀπὸ τοῦ σχήματος, εἰ ἀνασώσασθαί οἱ τὴν Αἴθραν ἐνέσται. Ἀργεῖοι δὲ καὶ ἐκ τῆς Σίνιδος θυγατρὸς γενέσθαι Θησεῖ Μελάνιππον λέγουσι, καὶ ὡς ἀνέλοιτο ὁ Μελάνιππος δρόμου νίκην, ὅτε οἱ[8] Λέσχεως δὲ ἐς τὴν Αἴθραν ἐποίησεν, ἡνίκα ἡλίσκετο Ἴλιον, ὑπεξελθοῦσαν ἐς τὸ στρατόπεδον αὐτὴν ἀφικέσθαι τὸ Ἑλλήνων καὶ ὑπὸ τῶν παίδων γνωρισθῆναι τῶν Θησέως, καὶ ὡς παρ᾽ Ἀγαμέμνονος αἰτήσαι Δημοφῶν αὐτήν: ὁ δὲ ἐκείνῳ μὲν ἐθέλειν χαρίζεσθαι, ποιήσειν δὲ οὐ πρότερον ἔφη πρὶν Ἑλένην πεῖσαι: ἀποστείλαντι δὲ αὐτῷ κήρυκα ἔδωκεν Ἑλένη τὴν χάριν. ἔοικεν οὖν ὁ Εὐρυβάτης ὁ ἐν τῇ γραφῇ ἀφῖχθαί τε ὡς τὴν Ἑλένην τῆς Αἴθρας ἕνεκα καὶ τὰ ἐντεταλμένα ὑπὸ τοῦ Ἀγαμέμνονος ἀπαγγέλλειν.[9] γυναῖκες δὲ αἱ Τρῳάδες αἰχμαλώτοις τε ἤδη καὶ ὀδυρομέναις ἐοίκασι. γέγραπται μὲν Ἀνδρομάχη, καὶ ὁ παῖς οἱ προσέστηκεν ἑλόμενος τοῦ μαστοῦ—τούτῳ Λέσχεως ῥιφθέντι ἀπὸ τοῦ πύργου συμβῆναι λέγει τὴν τελευτήν: οὐ μὴν ὑπὸ δόγματός γε Ἑλλήνων, ἀλλ᾽ ἰδίᾳ Νεοπτόλεμον αὐτόχειρα ἐθελῆσαι γενέσθαι—, γέγραπται δὲ Μηδεσικάστη, θυγατέρων μὲν Πριάμου καὶ αὕτη τῶν νόθων, ἐξῳκίσθαι δὲ ἐς Πήδαιον πόλιν φησὶν αὐτὴν Ὅμηρος Ἰμβρίῳ Μέντορος παιδὶ ἀνδρὶ ἐς Πήδαιον συνοικοῦσαν. [10] ἡ μὲν δὴ Ἀνδρομάχη καὶ ἡ Μηδεσικάστη καλύμματά εἰσιν ἐπικείμεναι, Πολυξένη δὲ κατὰ τὰ εἰθισμένα παρθένοις ἀναπέπλεκται τὰς ἐν τῇ κεφαλῇ τρίχας: ἀποθανεῖν δὲ αὐτὴν ἐπὶ τῷ Ἀχιλλέως μνήματι ποιηταί τε ᾁδουσι καὶ γραφὰς ἔν τε Ἀθήναις καὶ Περγάμῳ τῇ ὑπὲρ Καΐκου θεασάμενος οἶδα ἐχούσας ἐς τῆς Πολυξένης τὰ παθήματα.[11] γέγραφε δὲ καὶ Νέστορα τῇ κεφαλῇ τε ἐπικείμενον πῖλον καὶ ἐν τῇ χειρὶ δόρυ ἔχοντα: καὶ ἵππος κονίεσθαι μέλλοντος παρέχεται σχῆμα: ἄχρι μὲν δὴ τοῦ ἵππου αἰγιαλός τε καὶ ἐν αὐτῷ ψηφῖδες ὑποφαίνονται, τὸ δὲ ἐντεῦθεν οὐκέτι ἔοικεν εἶναι θάλασσα. 26 [1] τῶν δὲ γυναικῶν τῶν μεταξὺ τῆς τε Αἴθρας καὶ Νέστορος, εἰσὶν ἄνωθεν τούτων αἰχμάλωτοι καὶ αὗται Κλυμένη τε καὶ Κρέουσα καὶ Ἀριστομάχη καὶ Ξενοδίκη. Κλυμένην μὲν οὖν Στησίχορος ἐν Ἰλίου πέρσιδι κατηρίθμηκεν ἐν ταῖς αἰχμαλώτοις: ὡσαύτως δὲ καὶ Ἀριστομάχην ἐποίησεν ἐν Νόστοις θυγατέρα μὲν Πριάμου, Κριτολάου δὲ γυναῖκα εἶναι τοῦ Ἱκετάονος: Ξενοδίκης δὲ μνημονεύσαντα οὐκ οἶδα οὔτε ποιητὴν οὔτε ὅσοι λόγων συνθέται. ἐπὶ δὲ τῇ Κρεούσῃ λέγουσιν ὡς ἡ θεῶν μήτηρ καὶ Ἀφροδίτη δουλείας ἀπὸ Ἑλλήνων αὐτὴν ἐρρύσαντο, εἶναι γὰρ δὴ καὶ Αἰνείου τὴν Κρέουσαν γυναῖκα: Λέσχεως δὲ καὶ ἔπη τὰ Κύπρια διδόασιν Εὐρυδίκην γυναῖκα Αἰνείᾳ [2] γεγραμμέναι δὲ ἐπὶ κλίνης ὑπὲρ ταύτας Δηινόμη τε καὶ Μητιόχη καὶ Πεῖσίς ἐστι καὶ Κλεοδίκη: τούτων ἐν Ἰλιάδι καλουμένῃ μικρᾷ μόνης ἐστὶ τὸ ὄνομα τῆς Δηινόμης, τῶν δ᾽ ἄλλων ἐμοὶ δοκεῖν συνέθηκε τὰ ὀνόματα ὁ Πολύγνωτος. γέγραπται δὲ καὶ Ἐπειὸς γυμνὸς καταβάλλων ἐς ἔδαφος τῶν Τρώων τὸ τεῖχος: ἀνέχει δὲ ὑπὲρ αὐτὸ κεφαλὴ τοῦ ἵππου μόνη τοῦ δουρείου. Πολυποίτης δὲ ὁ Πειρίθου δεδεμένος τὴν κεφαλὴν ταινίᾳ καὶ παρ᾽ αὐτὸν Ἀκάμας ἐστὶν ὁ Θησέως ἐπικείμενος τῇ κεφαλῇ κράνος: [3] λόφος δὲ ἐπὶ τῷ κράνει πεποίηται. καὶ Ὀδυσσεύς τέ ἐστι ** καὶ ἐνδέδυκε θώρακα Ὀδυσσεύς. Αἴας δὲ ὁ Οἰλέως ἔχων ἀσπίδα βωμῷ προσέστηκεν, ὀμνύμενος ὑπὲρ τοῦ ἐς Κασσάνδραν τολμήματος: ἡ δὲ κάθηταί τε ἡ Κασσάνδρα χαμαὶ καὶ τὸ ἄγαλμα ἔχει τῆς Ἀθηνᾶς, εἴγε δὴ ἀνέτρεψεν ἐκ βάθρων τὸ ξόανον, ὅτε ἀπὸ τῆς ἱκεσίας αὐτὴν ὁ Αἴας ἀφεῖλκε. γεγραμμένοι δὲ καὶ οἱ παῖδές εἰσιν οἱ Ἀτρέως, ἐπικείμενοι καὶ οὗτοι κράνη, Μενελάῳ δὲ ἀσπίδα ἔχοντι δράκων ἐπὶ τῇ ἀσπίδι ἐστὶν εἰργασμένος τοῦ ἐν Αὐλίδι φανέντος ἐπὶ τοῖς ἱερείοις τέρατος ἕνεκα. ὑπὸ τούτοις τοῖς τὸν Αἴαντα ἐξορκοῦσιν, κατ᾽ εὐθὺ δὲ τοῦ ἵππου τοῦ[4] παρὰ τῷ Νέστορι Νεοπτόλεμος ἀπεκτονώς ἐστιν Ἔλασον, ὅστις δὴ ὁ Ἔλασος. οὗτος μὲν δὴ ὀλίγον ἐμπνέοντι ἔτι εἴκασται: Ἀστύνοον δέ, οὗ δὴ ἐποιήσατο καὶ Λέσχεως μνήμην, πεπτωκότα ἐς γόνυ ὁ Νεοπτόλεμος ξίφει παίει. Νεοπτόλεμον δὲ μόνον τοῦ Ἑλληνικοῦ φονεύοντα ἔτι τοὺς Τρῶας ἐποίησεν ὁ Πολύγνωτος, ὅτι ὑπὲρ τοῦ Νεοπτολέμου τὸν τάφον ἡ γραφὴ πᾶσα ἔμελλεν αὐτῷ γενήσεσθαι. τοῦ δὲ Ἀχιλλέως τῷ παιδὶ Ὅμηρος μὲν Νεοπτόλεμον ὄνομα ἐν ἁπάσῃ οἱ τίθεται τῇ ποιήσει: τὰ δὲ Κύπρια ἔπη φησὶν ὑπὸ Λυκομήδους μὲν Πύρρον, Νεοπτόλεμον δὲ ὄνομα ὑπὸ Φοίνικος αὐτῷ τεθῆναι, ὅτι Ἀχιλλεὺς ἡλικίᾳ ἔτι νέος πολεμεῖν ἤρξατο. [5] γέγραπται δὲ βωμός τε καὶ ὑπὸ δείματος παῖς μικρὸς ἐχόμενος τοῦ βωμοῦ: κεῖται δὲ καὶ θώραξ ἐπὶ τῷ βωμῷ χαλκοῦς. κατὰ δὴ ἐμὲ σπάνιον τῶν θωράκων τὸ σχῆμα ἦν τούτων, τὸ δὲ ἀρχαῖον ἔφερον αὐτούς. δύο ἦν χαλκᾶ ποιήματα, τὸ μὲν στέρνῳ καὶ τοῖς ἀμφὶ τὴν γαστέρα ἁρμόζον, τὸ δὲ ὡς νώτου σκέπην εἶναι —γύαλα ἐκαλοῦντο—: τὸ μὲν ἔμπροσθεν τὸ δὲ ὄπισθεν προσῆγον, ἔπειτα περόναι συνῆπτον πρὸς ἄλληλα. [6] ἀσφάλειαν δὲ ἀποχρῶσαν ἐδόκει παρέχεσθαι καὶ ἀσπίδος χωρίς: ἐπὶ τούτῳ καὶ Ὅμηρος Φόρκυνα τὸν Φρύγα οὐκ ἔχοντα ἀσπίδα ἐποίησεν, ὅτι αὐτῷ γυαλοθώραξ ἦν. ἐγὼ δὲ γραφῇ μεμιμημένον τοῦτον ἐθεασάμην ὑπὸ τοῦ Πολυγνώτου, καὶ ἐν Ἀρτέμιδος τῆς Ἐφεσίας Καλλιφῶν ὁ Σάμιος Πατρόκλῳ τοῦ θώρακος τὰ γύαλα ἁρμοζούσας ἔγραψε γυναῖκας. [7] τοῦ βωμοῦ δὲ ἐπέκεινα Λαοδίκην ἔγραψεν ἑστῶσαν. ταύτην οὔτε ὑπὸ ποιητοῦ κατειλεγμένην ἐν ταῖς αἰχμαλώτοις ταῖς Τρῳάσιν εὕρισκον οὔτε ἄλλως ἐφαίνετο ἔχειν μοι τὸ εἰκὸς ἢ ἀφεθῆναι τὴν Λαοδίκην ὑπὸ Ἑλλήνων. Ὅμηρος μέν γε ἐδήλωσεν ἐν Ἰλιάδι Μενελάου καὶ Ὀδυσσέως ξενίαν παρὰ Ἀντήνορι καὶ ὡς Ἑλικάονι ἡ Λαοδίκη συνοικοίη τῷ Ἀντήνορος: [8] Λέσχεως δὲ τετρωμένον τὸν Ἑλικάονα ἐν τῇ νυκτομαχίᾳ γνωρισθῆναί τε ὑπὸ Ὀδυσσέως καὶ ἐξαχθῆναι ζῶντα ἐκ τῆς μάχης φησίν. ἕποιτο ἂν οὖν τῇ Μενελάου καὶ Ὀδυσσέως κηδεμονίᾳ περὶ οἶκον τὸν Ἀντήνορος μηδὲ ἐς τοῦ Ἑλικάονος τὴν γυναῖκα ἔργον δυσμενὲς ὑπὸ Ἀγαμέμνονος καὶ Μενελάου γενέσθαι: Εὐφορίων δὲ ἀνὴρ Χαλκιδεὺς σὺν οὐδενὶ εἰκότι τὰ ἐς τὴν Λαοδίκην ἐποίησεν. [9] ἐφεξῆς δὲ τῇ Λαοδίκῃ ὑποστάτης τε λίθου καὶ λουτήριόν ἐστιν ἐπὶ τῷ ὑποστάτῃ χαλκοῦν, Μέδουσα δὲ κατέχουσα ταῖς χερσὶν ἀμφοτέραις τὸ ὑπόστατον ἐπὶ τοῦ ἐδάφους κάθηται: ἐν δὲ ταῖς Πριάμου θυγατράσιν ἀριθμήσαι τις ἂν καὶ ταύτην κατὰ τοῦ Ἱμεραίου τὴν ᾠδήν. παρὰ δὲ τὴν Μέδουσαν ἐν χρῷ κεκαρμένη πρεσβῦτις ἢ ἄνθρωπός ἐστιν εὐνοῦχος, παιδίον δὲ ἐν τοῖς γόνασιν ἔχει γυμνόν: τὸ δὲ τὴν χεῖρα ὑπὸ δείματος ἐπίπροσθε τῶν ὀφθαλμῶν πεποίηται. 27 [1] νεκροὶ δὲ ὁ μὲν γυμνὸς Πῆλις ὄνομα ἐπὶ τὸν νῶτόν ἐστιν ἐρριμμένος, ὑπὸ δὲ τὸν Πῆλιν Ἠιονεύς τε κεῖται καὶ Ἄδμητος ἐνδεδυκότες ἔτι τοὺς θώρακας: καὶ αὐτῶν Λέσχεως Ἠιονέα ὑπὸ Νεοπτολέμου, τὸν δὲ ὑπὸ Φιλοκτήτου φησὶν ἀποθανεῖν τὸν Ἄδμητον. ἄλλοι δὲ ἀνωτέρω τούτων ὑπὸ μὲν τὸ λουτήριον Λεώκριτός ἐστιν ὁ Πουλυδάμαντος τεθνεὼς ὑπὸ Ὀδυσσέως, ὑπὲρ δὲ Ἠιονέα τε καὶ Ἄδμητον Κόροιβος ὁ Μύγδονος: τούτου μνῆμά τε ἐπιφανὲς ἐν ὅροις πεποίηται Φρυγῶν Στεκτορηνῶν καὶ ἀπ᾽ αὐτοῦ ποιηταῖς Μύγδονας ὄνομα ἐπὶ τοῖς Φρυξὶ τίθεσθαι καθέστηκεν. ἀφίκετο μὲν δὴ ἐπὶ τὸν Κασσάνδρας ὁ Κόροιβος γάμον, ἀπέθανε δέ, ὡς μὲν ὁ πλείων λόγος, ὑπὸ Νεοπτολέμου, Λέσχεως δὲ ὑπὸ Διομήδους ἐποίησεν. [2] εἰσὶ δὲ καὶ ἐπάνω τοῦ Κοροίβου Πρίαμος καὶ Ἀξίων τε καὶ Ἀγήνωρ. Πρίαμον δὲ οὐκ ἀποθανεῖν ἔφη Λέσχεως ἐπὶ τῇ ἐσχάρᾳ τοῦ Ἑρκείου, ἀλλὰ ἀποσπασθέντα ἀπὸ τοῦ βωμοῦ πάρεργον τῷ Νεοπτολέμῳ πρὸς ταῖς τῆς οἰκίας γενέσθαι θύραις. ἐς δὲ Ἑκάβην Στησίχορος ἐν Ἰλίου πέρσιδι ἐποίησεν ἐς Λυκίαν ὑπὸ Ἀπόλλωνος αὐτὴν κομισθῆναι. Ἀξίονα δὲ παῖδα εἶναι Πριάμου Λέσχεως καὶ ἀποθανεῖν αὐτὸν ὑπὸ Εὐρυπύλου τοῦ Εὐαίμονός φησι: τοῦ Ἀγήνορος δὲ κατὰ τὸν αὐτὸν ποιητὴν Νεοπτόλεμος αὐτόχειρ ἐστί: καὶ οὕτω φαίνοιτο ἂν Ἔχεκλος μὲν φονευθεὶς ὁ Ἀγήνορος ὑπὸ Ἀχιλλέως, Ἀγήνωρ δὲ αὐτὸς ὑπὸ τοῦ Νεοπτολέμου.[3] Λαομέδοντος δὲ τὸν νεκρὸν Σίνων τε ἑταῖρος Ὀδυσσέως καὶ Ἀγχίαλός εἰσιν ἐκκομίζοντες. γέγραπται δὲ καὶ ἄλλος τεθνεώς: ὄνομά οἱ Ἔρεσος: τὰ δὲ ἐς Ἔρεσόν τε καὶ Λαομέδοντα, ὅσα γε ἡμεῖς ἐπιστάμεθα, ᾖσεν οὐδείς. ἔστι δὲ οἰκία τε ἡ Ἀντήνορος καὶ παρδάλεως κρεμάμενον δέρμα ὑπὲρ τῆς ἐσόδου, σύνθημα εἶναι τοῖς Ἕλλησιν ἀπέχεσθαι σφᾶς οἴκου τοῦ Ἀντήνορος. γέγραπται δὲ Θεανώ τε καὶ οἱ παῖδες, Γλαῦκος μὲν καθήμενος ἐπὶ θώρακι γυάλοις συνηρμοσμένῳ, Εὐρύμαχος δὲ ἐπὶ πέτρᾳ.[4] παρὰ δὲ αὐτὸν ἕστηκεν Ἀντήνωρ καὶ ἐφεξῆς θυγάτηρ Ἀντήνορος Κρινώ: παιδίον δὲ ἡ Κρινὼ φέρει νήπιον. τῶν προσώπων δὲ ἅπασιν οἷον ἐπὶ συμφορᾷ σχῆμά ἐστι. κιβωτὸν δὲ ἐπὶ ὄνον καὶ ἄλλα τῶν σκευῶν εἰσιν ἀνατιθέντες οἰκέται: κάθηται δὲ καὶ ἐπὶ τοῦ ὄνου παιδίον μικρόν. κατὰ τοῦτο τῆς γραφῆς καὶ ἐλεγεῖόν ἐστι Σιμωνίδου:“γράψε Πολύγνωτος, Θάσιος γένος, Ἀγλαοφῶντος υἱός, περθομένην Ἰλίου ἀκρόπολιν".

Beyond the Cassotis stands a building with paintings of Polygnotus. It was dedicated by the Cnidians, and is called by the Delphians Lesche (Place of Talk, Club Room), because here in days of old they used to meet and chat about the more serious matters and legendary history. That there used to be many such places all over Greece is shown by Homer's words in the passage where Melantho abuses Odysseus:—“And you will not go to the smith's house to sleep, Nor yet to the place of talk, but you make long speeches here. [2] Inside this building the whole of the painting on the right depicts Troy taken and the Greeks sailing away. On the ship of Menelaus they are preparing to put to sea. The ship is painted with children among the grown-up sailors; amidships is Phrontis the steersman holding two boat-hooks. Homer1 represents Nestor as speaking about Phrontis in his conversation with Telemachus, saying that he was the son of Onetor and the steersman of Menelaus, of very high repute in his craft, and how he came to his end when he was already rounding Sunium in Attica. Up to this point Menelaus had been sailing along with Nestor, but now he was left behind to build Phrontis a tomb, and to pay him the due rites of burial. [3] Phrontis then is in the painting of Polygnotus, and beneath him is one Ithaemenes carrying clothes, and Echoeax is going down the gangway, carrying a bronze urn. Polites, Strophius and Alphius are pulling down the hut of Menelaus, which is not far from the ship. Another hut is being pulled down by Amphialus, at whose feet is seated a boy. There is no inscription on the boy, and Phrontis is the only one with a beard. His too is the only name that Polygnotus took from the Odyssey; the names of the others he invented, I think, himself. [4] Briseis is standing with Diomeda above her and Iphis in front of both; they appear to be examining the form of Helen. Helen herself is sitting, and so is Eurybates near her. We inferred that he was the herald of Odysseus, although he had yet no beard. One handmaid, Panthalis, is standing beside Helen; another, Electra, is fastening her mistress' sandals. These names too are different from those given by Homer in the Iliad,1 where he tells of Helen going to the wall with her slave women. [5] Beyond Helen, a man wrapped in a purple cloak is sitting in an attitude of the deepest dejection; one might conjecture that he was Helenus, the son of Priam, even before reading the inscription. Near Helenus is Meges, who is wounded in the arm, as Lescheos of Pyrrha, son of Aeschylinus, describes in the Sack of Troy. For he says that he was wounded by Admetus, son of Augeias, in the battle that the Trojans fought in the night. [6] Beside Meges is also painted Lycomedes the son of Creon, who has a wound in the wrist; Lescheos says he was so wounded by Agenor. So it is plain that Polygnotus would not have represented them so wounded, if he had not read the poem of Lescheos. However, he has painted Lycomedes as wounded also in the ankle, and yet again in the head. Euryalus the son of Mecisteus has also received a wound in the head and another in the wrist. [7] These are painted higher up than Helen in the picture. Next to Helen comes the mother of Theseus with her head shaved, and Demophon, one of the sons of Theseus, is considering, to judge from his attitude, whether it will be possible for him to rescue Aethra. The Argives say that Theseus had also a son Melanippus by the daughter of Sinis, and that Melanippus won a running-race when the Epigoni, as they are called, held the second celebration of the Nemean games, that of Adrastus being the first. [8] Lescheos says of Aethra that, when Troy was taken, she came stealthily to the Greek camp. She was recognized by the sons of Theseus, and Demophon asked for her from Agamemnon. He was ready to grant Demophon the favour, but said that Helen must first give her consent. He sent a herald, and Helen granted him the favour. So in the painting Eurybates appears to have come to Helen to ask about Aethra, and to be saying what he had been told to say by Agamemnon. [9]The Trojan women are represented as already captives and lamenting. Andromache is in the painting, and near stands her boy grasping her breast; this child Lescheos says was put to death by being flung from the tower, not that the Greeks had so decreed, but Neoptolemus, of his own accord, was minded to murder him. In the painting is also Medesicaste, another of Priam's illegitimate daughters, who according to Homer1 left her home and went to the city of Pedaeum to be the wife of Imbrius, the son of Mentor. [10] Andromache and Medesicaste are wearing hoods, but the hair of Polyxena is braided after the custom of maidens. Poets sing of her death at the tomb of Achilles, and both at Athens and at Pergamus on the Calcus I have seen the tragedy of Polyxena depicted in paintings. [11] The artist has painted Nestor with a cap on his head and a spear in his hand. There is also a horse, in the attitude of one about to roll in the dust. Right up to the horse there is a beach with what appear to be pebbles, but beyond the horse the sea-scene breaks off. 26 [1] Above the women between Aethra and Nestor are other captive women, Clymene, Creusa, Aristomache and Xenodice. Now Stesichorus, in the Sack of Troy, includes Clymene in the number of the captives; and similarly, in the Returns, he speaks of Aristomache as the daughter of Priam and the wife of Critolaus, son of Hicetaon. But I know of no poet, and of no prose-writer, who makes mention of Xenodice. About Creusa the story is told that the mother of the gods and Aphrodite rescued her from slavery among the Greeks, as she was, of course, the wife of Aeneas. But Lescheos and the writer of the epic poem Cypria make Eurydice the wife of Aeneas. [2] Beyond these are painted on a couch Deinome, Metioche, Peisis and Cleodice. Deinome is the only one of these names to occur in what is called the Little Iliad; Polygnotus, I think, invented the names of the others. Epeius is painted naked; he is razing to the ground the Trojan wall. Above the wall rises the head only of the Wooden Horse. There is Polypoetes, the son of Peirithous, his head bound with a fillet; by his side is Acamas, the son of Theseus, wearing on his head a helmet with a crest on it. [3] There is also Odysseus...and Odysseus has put on his corselet. Ajax, the son of Oileus, holding a shield, stands by an altar, taking an oath about the outrage on Cassandra. Cassandra is sitting on the ground, and holds the image of Athena, for she had knocked over the wooden image from its stand when Ajax was dragging her away from sanctuary. In the painting are also the sons of Atreus, wearing helmets like the others; Menelaus carries a shield, on which is wrought a serpent as a memorial of the prodigy that appeared on the victims at Aulis. [4] Under those who are administering the oath to Ajax, and in a line with the horse by Nestor, is Neoptolemus, who has killed Elasus, whoever Elasus may be. Elasus is represented as a man only just alive. Astynous, who is also mentioned by Lescheos, has fallen to his knees, and Neoptolemus is striking him with a sword. Neoptolemus is the only one of the Greek army represented by Polygnotus as still killing the Trojans, the reason being that he intended the whole painting to be placed over the grave of Neoptolemus. The son of Achilles is named Neoptolemus by Homer in all his poetry. The epic poem, however, called Cypria says that Lycomedes named him Pyrrhus, but Phoenix gave him the name of Neoptolemus (young soldier) because Achilles was but young when he first went to war. [5] In the picture is an altar, to which a small boy clings in terror. On the altar lies a bronze corselet. At the present day corselets of this form are rare, but they used to be worn in days of old. They were made of two bronze pieces, one fitting the chest and the parts about the belly, the other intended to protect the back. They were called gyala. One was put on in front, and the other behind; then they were fastened together by buckles. [6] They were thought to afford sufficient safety even without a shield. Wherefore Homer1 speaks of Phorcys the Phrygian as without a shield, because he wore a two-piece corselet. Not only have I seen this armour depicted by Polygnotus, but in the temple of Ephesian Artemis Calliphon of Samos has painted women fitting on the gyala of the corselet of Patroclus. [7]Beyond the altar he has painted Laodice standing, whom I do not find among the Trojan captive women enumerated by any poet, so I think that the only probable conclusion is that she was set free by the Greeks. Homer in the Iliad speaks of the hospitality given to Menelaus and Odysseus by Antenor, and how Laodice was wife to Helicaon, Antenor's son. [8] Lescheos says that Helicaon, wounded in the night battle, was recognized by Odysseus and carried alive out of the fighting. So the tie binding Menelaus and Odysseus to the house of Antenor makes it unlikely that Agamemnon and Menelaus committed any spiteful act against the wife of Helicaon. The account of Laodice given by the Chalcidian poet Euphorion is entirely unlikely. [9] Next to Laodice is a stone stand with a bronze washing-basin upon it. Medusa is sitting on the ground, holding the stand in both hands. If we are to believe the ode of the poet of Himera, Medusa should be reckoned as one of the daughters of Priam. Beside Medusa is a shaved old woman or eunuch, holding on the knees a naked child. It is represented as holding its hand before its eyes in terror. 27 [1]There are also corpses: the naked man, Pelis by name, lies thrown on his back, and under Pelis lie Eioneus and Admetus, still clad in their corselets. Of these Lescheos says that Eioneus was killed by Neoptolemus, and Admetus by Philoctetes. Above these are others: under the washing-basin is Leocritus, the son of Pulydamas, killed by Odysseus; beyond Eioneus and Admetus is Coroebus, the son of Mygdon. Of Mygdon there is a notable tomb on the borders of the Phrygians of Stectorium, and after him poets are wont to call Phrygians by the name of Mygdones. Coroebus came to marry Cassandra, and was killed, according to the more popular account, by Neoptolemus, but according to the poet Lescheos, by Diomedes. [2] Higher up than Coroebus are Priam, Axion and Agenor. Lescheos says that Priam was not killed at the hearth of the Courtyard God, but that he was dragged away from the altar and fell an easy prey to Neoptolemus at the gate of his own palace. As to Hecuba, Stesichorus says in the Sack of Troy that she was brought by Apollo to Lycia. Lescheos says that Axion was a son of Priam, killed by Eurypylus, the son of Euaemon. According to the same poet Agenor was slain by Neoptolemus. So it would appear that Echeclus the son of Agenor was slaughtered by Achilles, and Agenor himself by Neoptolemus. [3] The body of Laomedon is being carried off by Sinon, a comrade of Odysseus, and Anchialus. There is also in the painting another corpse, that of Eresus. The tale of Eresus and Laomedon, so far as we know, no poet has sung. There is the house of Antenor, with a leopard's skin hanging over the entrance, as a sign to the Greeks to keep their hands off the home of Antenor. There are painted Theano and her sons, Glaucus sitting on a corselet fitted with the two pieces, and Eurymachus upon a rock. [4] By the latter stands Antenor, and next to him Crino, a daughter of Antenor. Crino is carrying a baby. The look upon their faces is that of those on whom a calamity has fallen. Servants are lading an ass with a chest and other furniture. There is also sitting on the ass a small child. At this part of the painting there is also an elegiac couplet of Simonides“ Polygnotus, a Thasian by birth, son of Aglaophon,Painted a picture of Troy's citadel being sacked

Annotation Authors and Editors
Created by Valérie Toillon

25. 1 Au-dessus de la Cassotis, est un édifice contenant des peintures de Polygnote. C'est une offrande des Cnidiens. Il est appelé par les Delphiens Lesché, parce qu'ils s'y rassemblaient anciennement pour y traiter d'objets sérieux ou y dire toute espèce de badinage ou de fables. Il y avait jadis beaucoup d'édifices pareils dans toute la Grèce, témoins des injures qu'Homère met dans la bouche de Mélanthos s'adressant à Ulysse (Od. XVIII, 328) : " Tu ne veux pas aller dormir dans une forge ou dans une Lesché, mais tu reste ici à jaser." 2. En entrant donc dans cet édifice, toutes les peintures qu'on voit à droite représentent Ilion prise par les Grecs et le départ de leur flotte. On prépare l'embarquement de Ménélas. On voit son vaisseau. L'équipage est à bord, composé d'hommes mêlés de quelques enfants. Au milieu du vaisseau est le pilote Phrontis tenant deux gaffes. Entre autres choses qu'Homère fait dire à Nestor dans son entretien avec Télémaque, il raconte que Phrontis était pilote de Ménélas et très habile dans son art; qu'il vint à mourir au moment où il doublait le cap Sounion en Attique; que Ménélas, qui jusque là avait navigué de concert avec Nestor, resta en arrière pour donner la sépulture à Phrontis et pour lui rendre tous les devoir funèbres (Od. III, 279). 3. Polygnote adonc mis ce Phrontis dans son tableau. Au-dessous de lui sont Ithaiménès apportant un vêtement et Echoiax qui descend par l'échelle et porte une urne de bronze. Non loin du vaisseau, Polités, Strophios et Alphios abattent le baraquement de Ménélas. Amphialos en abat un autre. À ses pieds est assis un enfant que ne désigne aucune inscription. Phrontis est le seul qui ait de la barbe. C'est aussi le seul dont Polygnote ait trouvé le nom dans l'Odyssée. Je présume qu'il a lui-même inventé les autres. 4. Briséis est debout; Diomédè est au-dessus d'elle et Iphis devant. Elles ont l'air de contempler la figure d'Hélène. Celle-ci est assise à côté d'Eurybatès, qui était, je crois, le héraut d'Ulysse, quoiqu'il soit imberbe. Puis viennent deux servantes, Élektra et Panthalis. Cette dernière se tient à côté d'Hélène, tandis qu'Élektra chausse sa maîtresse. Ici encore les noms diffèrent de ceux qu'HOmère a donnés dans l'Iliade aux femmes qui accompagnent Hélène au rempart. 5. Au-dessus d'Hélène est assis un homme couvert d'un manteau de pourpre, et qui a l'air profondément abattu. C'est Hélénos, fils de Priam. On le devine avant même d'avoir lu l'inscription. Près d'Hélénos, on voit Mégès, blessé au bras ainsi que l'a représenté Leschès, fils d'Aischylinos de Pyrrha, dans sa Prise d'Ilion. Il dit qu'il fut blessé par Admétos, fils d'Augias, dans le combat que les Troyens livrèrent cette nuit. 6. À côté de Mégès est peint Lykomédès, fils de Kréon, qui a une blessure au poignet. Leschès dit qu'il fut ainsi blessé par Agénor. Il est donc évident que Polygnote ne les aurait pas représentés blessés de cette manière, s'il n'avait pas lu le poème de Leschès. Il a cependant ajouté à Lykomédès une autre blessure à la cheville et une troisième à la t^te. Eurylaos, fils de Mékistheus, est également blessé à la tête et au poignet. 7. Tous ces personnages sont placés au-dessus d'Hélène dans le tableau. Après Hélène viennent la mère de Thésée avec les cheveux rasés et Démophon, un des fils de Thésée, réfléchissant, à en croire son attitude aux moyens de sauver Aithra. Les Argiens disent que Thésée eut de la fille de Sinis un fils nommé Mélanippos qui remporta le prix d ela course lorsque les Epigones firent célébrer les jeux Néméens pour la seconde fois après Adrastos. 8. Leschès rapporte qu'au moment de la prise d'Ilion, Aithra s'échappa dans le camp des Grecs; qu'elle fut reconnue par les fils de Thésée et que Démophon la demanda à Agamemnon. Celui-ci était disposé à la lui accorder, mais il voulu d'abord avoir l'agrément d'Hélène; il lui envoya donc un héraut et Héélène consentit à ce qu'on lui demandait. Eurybatès paraît donc aller auprès d'Hélène au sujet d'Aithra et lui porter le message d'Agamemnon. 9. Les femmes troyennes ont l'air d'être déjà captives et de se lamenter. Andromaque est représentée avec son enfant attaché à son sein. Leschès dit qu'il périt précipité du haut d'une tour, non par l'ordre des Grecs, mais sur l'initiative de Néoptolémos qui fut son meurtrier. On remarque aussi Médésikasté qui fut l'une des filles naturelles de Priam. Homère dit qu'elle vivait à Pédaion où elle avait épousé Imbrios, fils de Mentor. 10. Andromaque et Médésikasté sont voilées. Polyxène, selon la coutume des jeunes filles, a les cheveux retroussés au sommet de la tête. Les poètes la font mourir sur le tombeau d'Achille, et j'ai vu moi-même, à Athènes et à Pergame sur le Caïque, des peintures qui retracent l'infortune de Polyxène. 11. Le peintre a aussi représenté Nestor avec un bonnet sur la tête et une lance à la main. Un cheval prêt à se rouler sur le sable. Jusqu'à ce cheval, nous sommes sur une plage semée de galets; mais, plus loin, la mer disparaît. 26.1. Entre les figures d'Aithra et de Nestor, et au-dessus d'elles, sont d'autres captives : KLyméné, Kréousa, Aristomaché et Xénodiké. Stésichore, dans la Prise d'Ilion, a cité Klyméné parmi les captives, et, pareillement a nommé, dans les Retours, Aristomaché, fille de Priamet femme de Kritolaos, fils d'Hikétaon. Mais pour Xénodiké, je n'ai pas trouvé son nom mentionné dans aucun des poètes ni des prosateurs. Quant à Kréousa, on dit que la mère des dieux et Apĥrodite la préservèrent de l'esclavage, car elle femme d'Énée. Leschès et l'auteur des Chants Cypriens donnent Euridiké pour femme à Énée. 2. Au-dessus de ces captives, sont peintes, sur un lit, Déïnomé, Métoiché, Peisis ainsi que Kléodiké. Une seule d'entres elles est nommé dans la Petite Iliade, C'est Déïnomé. Les noms des autres sont, je suppose, de l'invention de Polygnote. On voit aussi Épéios nu, renversant jusqu'aux fondations le mur des Troyens; derrière, s'élève seule la tête du cheval de bois. Polypoitès, fils de Peirithos, a la tête ceinte d'une bandelette et près de lui est Akamas, fils de Thésée, la tête couverte d'un casque à aigrette. 3. Ulysse est aussi figuré ainsi que [...] . Ulysse a revêtu une cuirasse. Ajax, le fils d'Oïlée, armé d'un bouclier est debout devant un autel où il prête serment pour son attentat contre Cassandre. Celle-ci est assise à terre, tenant l'idole d'Athéna qu'elle est censée avoir arrachée de sa base quand Ajax l'entraîne loin de cet objet de sa supplication. Les fils d'Atrée sont aussi représentés avec leur casque sur la tête. Ménélas tient un bouclier sur lequel est figuré un serpent en mémoire de celui qui se manifesta à Aulis, dans un sacrifice comme présage (Il. II, 310). 4. Au-dessous de ces personnages qui font prêter serment à Ajax et sur la même ligne que le cheval, qui est à côté de Nestor, on voit Néoptolèmos qui vient de tuer Élasos. Je ne sais qui est cet Élasos qui représenté comme n'ayant plus qu'un souffle de vie. Néoptolémos frappe de son épée Astynoos dont Leschès a fait mention et qui tombé sur le genou. Néoptolémos est le seul des Grecs que Polygnote ait représenté massacrant encore les Troyens, apparemment parce que toute cette peinture était destinée à orner son tombeau. Homère, dans tout ses poèmes donne au fils d'Achille le nom de Néoptolémos, tandis que les Chants Cypriens disent que Lykomédès l'appela Pyrrhos, mais que Phoinix le nomma Néoptolémos parce qu'Achille avait commencé à combattre dans sa jeunesse. 5. On voit dans le tableau un autel où un petit enfant se cramponne dans un mouvement de frayeur; une cuirasse d'airain y est placée. De mon temps, cette forme est devenue rare; mais, anciennement, on en portait de semblables. Elles se composaient de deux plaques de bronze, dont l'une s'adaptait à la poitrine et au ventre, l'autre protégeait le dos. Ces pièces s'appelaient "gyala". Elles s'ajustaient l'une devant, l'autre derrière, puis elles étaient réunies par des agrafes. 6. Cela formait une armure suffisante même sans bouclier. Si Homère a représenté Phorkys le Phrygien sans bouclier, c'est parce qu'il avait une cuirasse de cette espèce. J'ai vu de ces cuirasses figurées par le pinceau de Polygnote et, dans le temple d'Artémis à Éphèse, par celui de Kalliphon de Samos; cet artiste a représenté les femmes attachant à Patrocle les deux plaques de sa cuirasse. 7. De l'autre côté de l'autel est peinte Laodiké debout. Je ne la vois figurer chez aucun poète sur la liste des captives troyennes; ce qui me paraît le plus probable, c'est qu'elle fut relâchée par les Grecs. HOmère dans l'Iliade, a parlé de l'hospitalité donnée à Ménélas et à Ulysse par Anténor, et il ajoute que Laodiké était mariée à Hélikaon, blessé dans le combat. 8. D'autre part, Leschès raconte qu'Hélikaon, blessé dans le combat nocturne, fut reconnu par Ulysse qui le tira vivant de la mêlée. Ces relations amicales de Ménélas et d'Ulysse avec la famille d'Anténor rendent probable que la femme d'Hélikaon n'ait pas été traitée en ennemie par Agamemnon et MÉnélas. L'histoire racontée sur Laodiké par Euphorion de Chalcis n'a pas l'ombre de vraisemblance. 9. Immédiatement après Laodiké, vous voyez un support en marbre sur lequel est placé un bassin de cuivre. MÉdousa assis sur le sol, tient ce support à deux mains. On peut compter cette Médousa parmi les filles de Prima d'Après le chant du poète d'Himère. À côté d'elle est une vieille femme, ou un eunuque aux cheveux ras, qui tient sur ses genoux un enfant nu; celui-ci, par frayeur, porte la main devant ses yeux. 27.1. Ensuite viennent des morts. Le premier, un nommé Pêlis, gît renversé sur le dos. Au-dessus de lui sont étendus Eïoneus et Admétos encore vêtus de leurs cuirasses. Leschès dit qu'Eïoneus fut tué par Néoptolémos et Admétos par Philoctète. Plus haut que ceux-ci on en voit d'autres. Au-dessous du bassin est Léokritos, fils de Polydamas, tué par Ulysse; au-dessus d'Eïoneus et d'Admétos est Koroibos, fils de Mygdon. Ce dernier a un tombeau fameux sur la frontière du territoire de Stektorion en Phrygie : c'est de son nom que les poètes ont coutume d'Appeler Mygdoniens les Phrygiens. Koroibos était venu demander Cassandre en mariage; il faut tué par Néoptolémod selon la tradition la plus répandue, ou par Diomède, àa ce que dit Leschés. 2. Plus haut que Koroibos sont Priam, Axion et Agénor. Leschès prétend que Priam ne mourut pas devant le foyer de Zeus Herkeios mais qu'il faut arraché de l'autel et tué en passant Néoptolémos deant les portes de son palais. Quand à Hécube, Stésichore dit, dans la Prise d'Ilion, qu'elle fut transportée par Apollon en Lycie. Leschès assure qu'Axion était fils de Priam et qu'il fut tué par Eurypylos, fils d'Euaimon; d'Après le même poète, Néoptolémos fut le meurtrier d'Agénor. Il paraîtrait donc qu'Échéklos, fils d'Ag.nor, fut tué par Achille, et Agénor lui-même par Néoptolémos. 3. Le cadavre de Laomédon est emporté par Sinon, un compagnon d'Ulysse, et par Anchialos. On voit aussi un autre cadavre. C'est celui d'Erésos. Aucun poète, à ma connaissance, n'a célébré l'histoire d'Erésos ni celle de Laomédon. On remarque aussi la maison d'Anténor avec une peau de panthère suspendue sur la porte, signal convenu pour que les Grecs respectasse cette maison. Théanô est représentée avec ses enfants, savoir Glaukos assis sur une cuirasse dont les "plaques" sont agrafées, et Eurymachos sur une rocher. 4. À côté d'elle est Anténor, suivi de sa fille Krinô; celle-ci porte un enfant en bas âge. Sur toutes ces figures est répandue l'expression du malheur. Des esclaves chargent sur un âne un coffre et d'Autres effets; sur l'âne est assis un jeune enfant. En cet endroit de la peinture est ce distique de Simonide : "Polygnote, Thasien d'origine, fils d'Aglaophon, a peint le sac de l'Acropole d"Ilion"

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Commentary

Polygnotos' Ilioupersis in the Cnidian lesche. On Polygnotos of Thasos see text 100.

  1. In book 10 Pausanias visits Phocis (central Greece), ) where he walks through the sanctuary at Delphi (on Pausanias and the general context of the "Description of Greece" see comments on text 75). The description of the paintings (25-31) starts by indicating the location of the lesche of the Cnidians within the sanctuary which is at the North of the Cassotis river, confirmed by the excavations (Pouilloux 1960, pp. 120-139). Pausanias' description is the only testimony from a person who has actually seen the paintings. Moreover, Pausanias' testimony is reliable on many points (Habicht 1985; Arafat 2004, pp. 17-24).
  2. The Lesche was a meeting place or maybe a public dining room (see: Öhler, RE, Bd. 24 sv. Leschai; Tomlinson 1980, pp. 225-227). The house was probably build ca. 475-450 BC, to commemorate the end of the Persian domination over the Cnidians, after the battle at the Eurymedon River, which took place ca. 469 BC (Robertson 1975, p. 242; Tomlinson 1980, p. 225; Kebric 1983, pp. 4-13). The paintings in the lesche were linked to the tomb and cult of Neoptolemos (see Reinach 1921, pp. 101-102, n. 4; Suárez de la Torre 1997).
  3. The lesche was a rectangular building of approximately 19 m in lenght by 9,5 m in width with a ridge roof (Pouilloux 1960, plans 18 and 21; Tomlinson 1980, pp.224-228; Bommelaer 1991, pp. 202-204; Jacquemin 1999, p. 151-152, 319, nr. 115). Inside, on the eastern side, there were four column bases. Since we know nothing about the elevation of the building, the lighting is still questioned. Maybe a sort of clerestory provided light (Pouilloux 1960, pp. 133-136; Robertson 1980, p. 164; Stansbury-O’Donnell 1989, p. 205; Roscino 2010, p. 39). The paintings were inside the building covering the four walls. According to recent studies, the entry was on the West side of the building (Maaß & Daverio Rocchi , "Delphi" in Brills' New Pauly; Jacquemin 1999, pp. 151-152; Roscino 2010, pp. 39-40), and not on the South side as was indicated in previous publications (Robertson 1975, p. 247; Stansbury-O’Donnell 1989, p. 206). Thus, the paintings were displayed on the north, east, and south walls of the building, joining in the middle of the east wall (Roscino 2010, fig. 18). According to Pausanias' description, the Ilioupersis (fall of Troy) was on the right side of the Cnidian Lesche. In other words, the painting was covering the right part of the west wall, the south wall and the right half of the east wall (on the discussion concerning the direction of Pausanias' description see: Picard 1937, pp. 186-188; Stansbury-O’Donnell 1989, p. 206; Roscino 2010, pp. 46-50).
  4. Since the 18th Century, numerous scholars have proposed reconstitutions of the Polygnotean's paintings based on Pausanias' description (preceding bibliography see: Reinach 1921, pp. 91-92). The most authoritative work was C. Robert's publication in 1893 (“Die Iliupersis des Polygnot”). See also Stansbury-O’Donnell 1989; Cousin, 2000, pp. 73-81 and Roscino 2010, pp. 38-67.
  5. The kind of media used for the paintings is still questioned: did Polygnotos paint on wooden panels or did he use the fresco technique? Some scholars agree to opt for the wooden panels (at least large removable panels), mostly because the excavations show that the lesche was rebuild during the last third of the fourth century BC, especially the north-east part of the wall and the roof (Pouilloux 1960, p. 136; Robertson 1975, p. 244; Kebric 1983, p. 12; Cousin 2000, pp. 63-64). Likewise, the other Ilioupersis painted by Polygnotos in Athens was on wooden panels (see text 114). But according to Pliny, Polygnotos used also other painting techniques, such as encaustic (see text 11) and fresco (see text 324). Therefore, had the paintings been frescos, directly painted on the wall, Pausanias would have not seen the original paintings or the originals with partial repairs (Pouilloux 1960, pp. 135-137; Robertson 1975, pp. 244-245; Stansbury-O’Donnell 1989, p. 206; Jacquemin 1999, p. 151 n. 310; Roscino 2010, pp. 43-44. On the practice of restauring paintings in ancient times see text 324: the painter Pausias of Sicyone restored the painting of Polygnotos at Thespiae).
  6. Since archaic times, the Ilioupersis or « the Fall of Troy » was a very popular subject in ancient art (see text 62; Pipili, LIMC VIII s.v. Ilioupersis, pp. 650-657; Castriota 1992, pp. 97-100; Anderson 1997, esp. pp. 247-255; Mangold 2005). Polygnotos painted another Ilioupersis in Athens, at the Stoa Poikile, certainly quite similar to the one at the Cnidian’s Lesche (see: text 116; LIMC VIII s.v. Ilioupersis 26). The originality of Polygnotos’ paintings is that he chooses to depict the aftermath of the sack of Troy; that is why Pausanias call the paintings “Troy taken” (Ilios ... ealokuia) and not “the fall of Troy”. The scenes are a reflection concerning the Greeks and Trojans actions during the fall of Troy. The characters are facing their own fate and deeds. It is in that sens that we must interpret the word “ethographos” in Aristotle’s Poetics concerning Polygnotos' work (see texts 133 and 131; Méautis 1937; Pollitt 1976, pp. 51-53; Stansbury-O’Donnell 1989, pp. 211-214; Castriota 1992, pp. 102-118; Stansbury-O’Donnell 2014, pp. 148-151). The paintings should be examined in connection to the paintings of the Nekyia which is depicted on the other part of the walls of the Lesche (text 107b; Cousin 2000, pp. 81-82). Both paintings were certainly concieved as a reflection on the political situation in Greece after the Persian wars, containing political allusions (especially to Kimon and Athens), but also religious and mythical references, constituting a complex iconographical program (Kebric 1983, pp. 14-36; Castriota 1992, pp. 89-91 and pp. 100-118; Stansbury-O'Donnell 1989; 1990; Jacquemin 1999, p. 210; Roscino 2010, pp. 59-67). Innovations introduced by the art of Polygnotos were also reflected in contemporary works of art, especially in vase painting (ca. 470-440 BC). For example see the calyx crater by the Niobid painter at the Louvre Museum (Löwy 1929; Alfred 1930; Simon 1963; Denoyelle 1997; Stansbury-O’Donnell 2014, pp. 142-156).
  7. The paintings had a large number of characters (about 80), less-than-life size (about 0,8m height), identified by inscriptions and distributed on three levels. Pausanias' description follows this spatial organisation of the figures within the picture, using words such as "up", "below", "above", "further".Therefore, the paintings introduce the notion of pictorial space, acting as a "window on the pictured world" (Robertson 1975, p. 248-252; 1992 p. 122-123; Cousin 2000, pp. 73-80; Stansbury-O’Donnell 1989, pp. 206-207; Bommelaer 2001, pp. 383-386). Pausanias alternates the description of the paintings with remarks on mythological subjects, trying to identify the literary sources used by Polygnotos to create his work. Therefore, Pausanias is making observations based on his own knowledge (Arafat 2004, pp. 16-17). But, we do not know which sources Polygnotos did use in order to compose his paintings (on the Ilioupersis literary sources see: LIMC VIII s.v. Ilioupersis, pp. 650-651).
  8. The main characters and iconographic themes identified by Pausanias are listed below (for the sake of clarity, only the LIMC’ articles are cited, in which one can find a more extend bibliography on each topic): the first scene described by Pausanias is the departure of the Greek fleet with Menelaos (Kahil, LIMC VIII s.v. Menelaos, pp. 834-841) and his steersman Phrontis (Kahil, LIMC VII sv. Phrontis p. 405, esp. Phrontis 1; Od. III, 278-285; on the shrine of Phrontis in Cape Sounion: Picard 1940; Abramson 1979); what follows is the group of Helene (Kahil, LIMC IV s.v. Helene, pp. 498-562, esp. Helene 374) with her handmaiden Briseis (Kossatz-Diessman, LIMC III, s.v. Briseis, pp. 157-167, esp. Briseis 53), Diomede (Kossatz-Diessmann, LIMC I s.v. Diomede, pp. 395-396, esp. Diomede 1) and Iphis. Eurybates (Zervoudaki, LIMC IV s.v. Eurybates II, p. 97, esp. Eurybates II 3), Agamemnon's herald is also depicted near Helene. Then, Helenos in a very sad attitude (Icard-Gianolio, LIMC VIII s.v. Helenos, pp. 613-614, esp. Helenos 2), Meges (LIMC s.v. Meges I) and Likomedes are depicted, followed by Aethra -Theseus' mother- (Kron, LIMC I s.v. Aithra I, pp. 420-431, esp. Aithra I 74) and her nephews Akamas and Demophon (Kron, LIMC I s.v. Akamas et Demophon, pp. 435-446, esp. Akamas et Demophon 9). Then, the Trojan captive women, among which Andromache (Touchefeu-Meynier, LIMC I s.v. Andromache I, pp. 767-774 esp. Andromache I 42) and Polyxene (Touchefeu-Meynier, LIMC VII s.v. Polyxene, pp. 431-435, esp. Polyxene 17. A painting of the sacrifice of Polyxene was in Athens at the pinacotheca see text 121). Then, Nestor could be seen (Lygouri-Tolia, LIMC VII sv. Nestor, pp. 1060-1065, esp. Nestor 31) on a beach with a horse. Over Nestor and Aethra, a group of captive women ; and furhter up another group of captive women sitting on a bed (kline) or maybe near a fountain (on that point see: Robertson 1967). The wall of Troy is figured and behind it the head of the Trojan Horse (Sarduska, LIMC III s.v. Equus Troianus, pp. 813-817, esp. Equus Troianus 21, see also Petr. Sat. 89, 4.26 and 56-65). Ulysses follows (Touchefeu-Meynier, LIMC VI s.v. Odysseus, pp. 943-970), as well as Ajax (Touchefeu-Meynier, LIMC I s.v. Aias II, pp. 336-351, esp. Aias II 110) and Cassandra (Paoletti, LIMC VII s.v. Kassandra I, pp. 956-970). Menelaos is represented a second time. Below is Neoptolemos (Touchefeu-Meynier, LIMC IV s.v. Neoptolemos, pp. 773-779, esp. Neoptolemos 18) killing Elasos (Icard-Gianolio, LIMC III sv. Elasos 1, p. 708. On the cult of Neoptolemos at Delphi: Suárez de la Torre 1997). Laodike is pictured near an altar (Icard-Gianolio, LIMC VI, s.v. Laodike II 1 = Akamas et Demophon 9, p. 192) while Priam is among the dead (Neils, LIMC VII s.v. Priamos, pp. 507-522, esp. Priamos 139). Then, the body of Laomedon (LIMC VI s.v. Laomedon II, p 203) and, finally, the last group is the priest Antenor and his family (Davies, LIMC I s.v. Antenor I, pp. 811-815, esp. Antenor I 4).
  9. The paintings contain also numerous landscape indications as the sea; a beach; the wall of Troy; two altars; a water-basin; maybe a fountain; a house. Each element places the characters in a specific landscape (the beach, the city) which contrast with the depiction of the Nekyia on the other part of the Lesche (see text 107b). The topographical indicators are also part of Polygnotos' innovation, indicating depth within the painting, like, for example, the head of the Trojan horse emerging behind the Trojan walls (Paus. 10, 26.2) (Cousin 2000, pp. 82-84 ).
  10. On the painting by Kalliphon of Samos see text 76a.
  11. The epigram which identified Polygnotos as the painter of the Ilioupersis at Delphi is attributed to Simonides by Pausanias and is also cited in text 110 (Plutarch, De defect. Ora. 47, 436b), by Hesychius (s.v. Θάσιος παῖς Ἀγλαοφῶντος) and in the Greek Anthology (9.700). Since Simonides died ca. 468 BC, the authenticity of the epigram has been questioned (On this specific point see: Page 1975, p. 28 s.v. "Simonides" 48 (160B., 112D.); Kebric 1983, pp. 11-13; Chamoux 2001, p.85).
Annotation Authors and Editors
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Bibliography

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Annotation Authors and Editors
Created by Valérie Toillon