Pausanias, Description of Greece, 1.1.3

θέας δὲ ἄξιον τῶν ἐν Πειραιεῖ μάλιστα Ἀθηνᾶς ἐστι καὶ Διὸς τέμενος· χαλκοῦ μὲν ἀμφότερα τὰ ἀγάλματα, ἔχει δὲ ὁ μὲν σκῆπτρον καὶ Νίκην, ἡ δὲ Ἀθηνᾶ δόρυ. ἐνταῦθα Λεωσθένην, ὃς Ἀθηναίοις καὶ τοῖς πᾶσιν Ἕλλησιν ἡγούμενος Μακεδόνας ἔν τε Βοιωτοῖς ἐκράτησε μάχῃ καὶ αὖθις ἔξω Θερμοπυλῶν καὶ βιασάμενος ἐς Λάμιαν κατέκλεισε τὴν ἀπαντικρὺ τῆς Οἴτης, τοῦτον τὸν Λεωσθένην καὶ τοὺς παῖδας ἔγραψεν Ἀρκεσίλαος. ἔστι δὲ τῆς στοᾶς τῆς μακρᾶς, ἔνθα καθέστηκεν ἀγορὰ τοῖς ἐπὶ θαλάσσης—καὶ γὰρ τοῖς ἀπωτέρω τοῦ λιμένος ἐστὶν ἑτέρα—, τῆς δὲ ἐπὶ θαλάσσης στοᾶς ὄπισθεν ἑστᾶσι Ζεὺς καὶ Δῆμος, Λεωχάρους ἔργον. πρὸς δὲ τῇ θαλάσσῃ Κόνων ᾠκοδόμησεν Ἀφροδίτης ἱερόν, τριήρεις Λακεδαιμονίων κατεργασάμενος περὶ Κνίδον τὴν ἐν τῇ Καρικῇ χερρονήσῳ. Κνίδιοι γὰρ τιμῶσιν Ἀφροδίτην μάλιστα, καί σφισιν ἔστιν ἱερὰ τῆς θεοῦ· τὸ μὲν γὰρ ἀρχαιότατον Δωρίτιδος, μετὰ δὲ τὸ Ἀκραίας, νεώτατον δὲ ἣν Κνιδίαν οἱ πολλοί, Κνίδιοι δὲ αὐτοὶ καλοῦσιν Εὔπλοιαν.

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[ Ce qui vaut le plus la peine d'être vu au Pirée est un sanctuaire d'Athéna et de Zeus. Leurs statues de culte sont en bronze toutes les deux; Zeus tiens un sceptre et une victoire, Athéna une lance.] Là, il y a un portrait de Lesothénès et de ses fils, peint par Arkesilaos. Ce Léosthénès, à la tête des Athéniens et des Grecs unifiés, défit les Macédoniens en Béotie et encore une fois au-delà des Thermopyle il les força à s'enfermer dans Lamia, en face de l'Oeta. Le portrait se trouve dans le long portique, où se trouve un marché pour ceux qui vivent près de la mer - eux qui vivent loin de la côte en ont un autre - Mais derrière ce portique, près de la mer se tient un Zeus et un Demos, oeuvres de Léocharès.

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Commentary

  1. On Arkesilaos, see text 338.

  2. Leosthenes (ca. 365-323 BCE. See Paus. 1.25.5) was an Athenian general of the Lamian war (323-322 BCE). He was the son of that Leosthenes who was exiled to the court of Philipp II of Macedonia in 362/61 BCE. He won a battle in Boeotia and another one near Thermopylae against the army of Antipater, the regent of Macedonia in 323 BCE. He died in 322 BCE at the siege of Lamia (Reinach, 1921; Davies, 1971, pp. 342-344, n. 9142; Worthington, 1987; Chamoux in Pausanias, 1992, p. 146 ).

  3. The portrait was certainly a votive offering, erected inside the precinct (temenos) of Zeus Sôter (savior) and Athena Sôteira in Piraeus (the Diisoterion), maybe in commemoration of the victory of Leosthenes against the Macedonians in 323 BCE. The temple of Zeus and Athena was near the Cantharos in Piraeus. Its location still remains unknown. The temple housed the cult statues of Zeus and Athena, made in bronze. One of them, probably the statue of Athena, was the work of Cephisodotos, father of Praxiteles (Lyc. Against Leocrates 17, 136-137; Pliny, N.H. 34.74; Rouse, 1975; Van Straten, 1981, 1992; Chamoux in Pausanias, 1992, pp. 145-146; Garland, 2001, pp. 137-138 and 152; Karoglou, 2010, pp. 5-8. On painted portraits in Greek art see commentaries on text 165). Strabo mentions paintings displayed in the small porticoes (stoidia) of the temple (Strabo, 9.396).

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Tags

  • arkesilaos

Bibliography

Davies, J. K. 1971. Athenian Propertied Families, 600-300 B.C. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Garland, R. 2001. The Piraeus: from the Fifth to the First Century BCE. London: Bristol Classical Press.

Karoglou, K. 2010. Attic pinakes: Votive Images in Clay. BAR. International series; no. 2104. Oxford: Archaeopress.

Pausanias. 1992. Description de la Grèce. Paris: Les Belles Lettres.

Reinach, A., Reinach, S. and Milliet, P. 1921. Textes grecs et latins relatifs à l’histoire de la peinture ancienne. Paris: Klincksieck.

Rouse, W. H. D. 1975. Greek Votive Offerings. Ancient Religion and Mythology. New York: Arno Press.

Traill, J. S. 1994. Persons of Ancient Athens. Toronto: Athenians.

Van Straten, F. T. 1981. ‘Gifts for the gods’, in Faith, Hope and Worship: Aspects of Religious Mentality in the Ancient World. Ed. H. S. Versnel. Studies in Greek and Roman Religion 2, Leiden: Brill, pp. 65–151.

Van Straten, F. T. 1992. ‘Votives and votaries in Greek sanctuaries’, in Le sanctuaire grec. Eds. Bingen J. and Schachter A., Entretiens sur l'antiquité classique 37. Geneva: Fondation Hardt. pp. 247–290.

Worthington, I. 1987. ‘The Earlier Career of Leosthenes and I.G. II2 1631’, Historia: Zeitschrift für Alte Geschichte, 36(4), pp. 489–491. Available at: http://www.jstor.org.ezproxy.library.tufts.edu/stable/4436029 (Accessed: 27 April 2017).

Annotation Authors and Editors
Created by Valérie Toillon