Philostratus the Athenian 2nd/3rd cent, Life of Apollonius of Tyana, 2.20-2.22

χαλκοῖ γὰρ πίνακες ἐγκεκρότηνται τοίχῳ ἑκάστῳ, γεγραμμένοι τὰ Πώρου τε καὶ Ἀλεξάνδρου ἔργα: γεγράφαται δὲ ὀρειχάλκῳ καὶ ἀργύρῳ καὶ χρυσῷ καὶ χαλκῷ μέλανι ἐλέφαντες ἵπποι στρατιῶται κράνη ἀσπίδες, λόγχαι δὲ καὶ βέλη καὶ ξίφη σιδήρου πάντα, καὶ ὥσπερ λόγος εὐδοκίμου γραφῆς, οἷον εἰ Ζεύξιδος εἴη τι ἢ Πολυγνώτου τε καὶ Εὐφράνορος, οἳ τὸ εὔσκιον ἠσπάσαντο καὶ τὸ ἔμπνουν καὶ τὸ ἐσέχον τε καὶ ἐξέχον, οὕτως, φασί, κἀκεῖ διαφαίνεται, καὶ ξυντετήκασιν αἱ ὕλαι καθάπερ χρώματα. [...] ὃν δὲ διέτριβεν ἐν τῷ ἱερῷ χρόνον, πολὺς δὲ οὗτος ἐγένετο, ἔστ᾽ ἂν ἀγγελθῇ τῷ βασιλεῖ ξένους ἥκειν, ‘ὦ Δάμι’ ἔφη ὁ Ἀπολλώνιος, ‘ἔστι τι γραφική;’ ‘εἴ γε’ εἶπε ‘καὶ ἀλήθεια.’ ‘πράττει δὲ τί ἡ τέχνη αὕτη;’ ‘τὰ χρώματα’ ἔφη ‘ξυγκεράννυσιν, ὁπόσα ἐστί, τὰ κυανᾶ τοῖς βατραχείοις καὶ τὰ λευκὰ τοῖς μέλασι καὶ τὰ πυρσὰ τοῖς ὠχροῖς.’ ‘ταυτὶ δὲ’ ἦ δ᾽ ὃς ‘ὑπὲρ τίνος μίγνυσιν; οὐ γὰρ ὑπὲρ μόνου τοῦ ἄνθους, ὥσπερ αἱ κήριναι.’ ‘ὑπὲρ μιμήσεως’ ἔφη ‘καὶ τοῦ κύνα τε ἐξεικάσαι καὶ ἵππον καὶ ἄνθρωπον καὶ ναῦν καὶ ὁπόσα ὁρᾷ ὁ ἥλιος: ἤδη δὲ καὶ τὸν ἥλιον αὐτὸν ἐξεικάζει τοτὲ μὲν ἐπὶ τεττάρων ἵππων, οἷος ἐνταῦθα λέγεται φαίνεσθαι, τοτὲ δ᾽ αὖ καὶ διαπυρσεύοντα τοῦ οὐρανοῦ, ἐπειδὰν αἰθέρα ὑπογράφῃ καὶ θεῶν οἶκον.’ ‘μίμησις οὖν ἡ γραφική, ὦ Δάμι;’ ‘τί δὲ ἄλλο;’ εἶπεν ‘εἰ γὰρ μὴ τοῦτο πράττοι, γελοία δόξει χρώματα ποιοῦσα εὐήθως.’ ‘τὰ δ᾽ ἐν τῷ οὐρανῷ’ ἔφη ‘βλεπόμενα, ἐπειδὰν αἱ νεφέλαι διασπασθῶσιν ἀπ᾽ ἀλλήλων, τοὺς κενταύρους καὶ τραγελάφους καὶ, νὴ Δί᾽, οἱ λύκοι τε καὶ οἱ ἵπποι, τί φήσεις; ἆρ᾽ οὐ μιμητικῆς εἶναι ἔργα;’ ‘ἔοικεν,’ ἔφη. ‘ζωγράφος οὖν ὁ θεός, ὦ Δάμι, καὶ καταλιπὼν τὸ πτηνὸν ἅρμα, ἐφ᾽ οὗ πορεύεται διακοσμῶν τὰ θεῖά τε καὶ ἀνθρώπεια, κάθηται τότε ἀθύρων τε καὶ γράφων ταῦτα, ὥσπερ οἱ παῖδες ἐν τῇ ψάμμῳ;’ ἠρυθρίασεν ὁ Δάμις ἐς οὕτως ἄτοπον ἐκπεσεῖν δόξαντος τοῦ λόγου. οὐχ ὑπεριδὼν οὖν αὐτὸν ὁ Ἀπολλώνιος, οὐδὲ γὰρ πικρὸς πρὸς τὰς ἐλέγξεις ἦν, ‘ἀλλὰ μὴ τοῦτο’ ἔφη ‘βούλει λέγειν, ὦ Δάμι, τὸ ταῦτα μὲν ἄσημά τε καὶ ὡς ἔτυχε [p. 65] διὰ τοῦ οὐρανοῦ φέρεσθαι τόγε ἐπὶ τῷ θεῷ, ἡμᾶς δὲ φύσει τὸ μιμητικὸν ἔχοντας ἀναρρυθμίζειν τε αὐτὰ καὶ ποιεῖν;’ ‘μᾶλλον’ ἔφη ‘τοῦτο ἡγώμεθα, ὦ Ἀπολλώνιε, πιθανώτερον γὰρ καὶ πολλῷ βέλτιον.’ ‘διττὴ ἄρα ἡ μιμητική, ὦ Δάμι, καὶ τὴν μὲν ἡγώμεθα οἵαν τῇ χειρὶ ἀπομιμεῖσθαι καὶ τῷ νῷ, γραφικὴν δὲ εἶναι ταύτην, τὴν δ᾽ αὖ μόνῳ τῷ νῷ εἰκάζειν.’ ‘οὐ διττήν,’ ἔφη ὁ Δάμις ‘ἀλλὰ τὴν μὲν τελεωτέραν ἡγεῖσθαι προσήκει γραφικήν γε οὖσαν, ἣ δύναται καὶ τῷ νῷ καὶ τῇ χειρὶ ἐξεικάσαι, τὴν δὲ ἑτέραν ἐκείνης μόριον, ἐπειδὴ ξυνίησι μὲν καὶ μιμεῖται τῷ νῷ καὶ μὴ γραφικός τις ὤν, τῇ χειρὶ δὲ οὐκ ἂν ἐς τὸ γράφειν αὐτὰ χρήσαιτο.’ ‘ἆρα,’ ἔφη ‘ὦ Δάμι, πεπηρωμένος τὴν χεῖρα ὑπὸ πληγῆς τινος ἢ νόσου;’ ‘μὰ Δί᾽’ εἶπεν ‘ἀλλ᾽ ὑπὸ τοῦ μήτε γραφίδος τινὸς ἧφθαι, μήτε ὀργάνου τινὸς ἢ χρώματος, ἀλλ᾽ ἀμαθῶς ἔχειν τοῦ γράφειν.’ ‘οὐκοῦν,’ ἔφη ‘ὦ Δάμι, ἄμφω ὁμολογοῦμεν μιμητικὴν μὲν ἐκ φύσεως τοῖς ἀνθρώποις ἥκειν, τὴν γραφικὴν δὲ ἐκ τέχνης. τουτὶ δ᾽ ἂν καὶ περὶ τὴν πλαστικὴν φαίνοιτο. τὴν δὲ δὴ ζωγραφίαν αὐτὴν οὔ μοι δοκεῖς μόνον τὴν διὰ τῶν χρωμάτων ἡγεῖσθαι, καὶ γὰρ ἓν χρῶμα ἐς αὐτὴν ἤρκεσε τοῖς γε ἀρχαιοτέροις τῶν γραφέων καὶ προϊοῦσα τεττάρων εἶτα πλειόνων ἥψατο, ἀλλὰ καὶ γραμμὴν καὶ τὸ ἄνευ χρώματος, ὃ δὴ σκιᾶς τε ξύγκειται καὶ φωτός, ζωγραφίαν προσήκει καλεῖν: καὶ γὰρ ἐν αὐτοῖς ὁμοιότης τε ὁρᾶται εἶδός τε καὶ νοῦς καὶ αἰδὼς καὶ θρασύτης, καίτοι χηρεύει χρωμάτων ταῦτα, καὶ οὔτε αἷμα ἐνσημαίνει οὔτε κόμης τινὸς ἢ ὑπήνης ἄνθος, ἀλλὰ μονοτρόπως ξυντιθέμενα τῷ τε ξανθῷ ἀνθρώπῳ ἔοικε καὶ τῷ λευκῷ, κἂν τούτων τινὰ τῶν Ἰνδῶν λευκῇ τῇ γραμμῇ γράψωμεν, [p. 66] μέλας δήπου δόξει, τὸ γὰρ ὑπόσιμον τῆς ῥινὸς καὶ οἱ ὀρθοὶ βόστρυχοι καὶ ἡ περιττὴ γένυς καὶ ἡ περὶ τοῖς ὀφθαλμοῖς οἷον ἔκπληξις μελαίνει τὰ ὁρώμενα καὶ Ἰνδὸν ὑπογράφει τοῖς γε μὴ ἀνοήτως ὁρῶσιν. ὅθεν εἴποιμ᾽ ἂν καὶ τοὺς ὁρῶντας τὰ τῆς γραφικῆς ἔργα μιμητικῆς δεῖσθαι: οὐ γὰρ ἂν ἐπαινέσειέ τις τὸν γεγραμμένον ἵππον ἢ ταῦρον μὴ τὸ ζῷον ἐνθυμηθείς, ᾧ εἴκασται, οὐδ᾽ ἂν τὸν Αἴαντά τις τὸν Τιμομάχου ἀγασθείη, ὃς δὴ ἀναγέγραπται αὐτῷ μεμηνώς, εἰ μὴ ἀναλάβοι τι ἐς τὸν νοῦν Αἴαντος εἴδωλον καὶ ὡς εἰκὸς αὐτὸν ἀπεκτονότα τὰ ἐν τῇ Τροίᾳ βουκόλια καθῆσθαι ἀπειρηκότα, βουλὴν ποιούμενον καὶ ἑαυτὸν κτεῖναι. ταυτὶ δέ, ὦ Δάμι, τὰ τοῦ Πώρου δαίδαλα μήτε χαλκευτικῆς μόνον ἀποφαινώμεθα, γεγραμμένοις γὰρ εἴκασται, μήτε γραφικῆς, ἐπειδὴ ἐχαλκεύθη, ἀλλ᾽ ἡγώμεθα σοφίσασθαι αὐτὰ γραφικόν τε καὶ χαλκευτικὸν ἕνα ἄνδρα, οἷον δή τι παρ᾽ Ὁμήρῳ τὸ τοῦ Ἡφαίστου περὶ τὴν τοῦ Ἀχιλλέως ἀσπίδα ἀναφαίνεται. μεστὰ γὰρ καὶ ταῦτα ὀλλύντων τε καὶ ὀλλυμένων, καὶ τὴν γῆν ᾑματῶσθαι φήσεις χαλκῆν οὖσαν.’

But the pattern was wrought with orichalcus and silver and gold and black bronze, of elephants, horses, soldiers, helmets, shields, but spears, and javelins and swords, were all made of iron; and the composition was like the subject of some famous painting by Zeuxis or Polygnotus and Euphranor, who delighted in light and shade; and, they say, here also was an appearance of real life, as well as depth and relief. And the metals were blended in the design, melted in like so many colors. [...] While he was waiting in the Temple -and it took a long time for the king to be informed that strangers had arrived- Apollonius said: "O Damis, is there such a thing as painting?" "Why yes," he answered, "if there be any such thing as truth." "And what does this art do?" "It mixes together," replied Damis, "all the colors there are, blue with green, and white with black, and red with yellow." "And for what reason," said the other, "does it mix these? For it isn't merely to get a color, like dyed wax." "It is," said Damis, "for the sake of imitation, and to get a likeness of a dog, or a horse, or a man, or a ship, or of anything else under the sun; and what is more, you see the sun himself represented, sometimes borne upon a four horse car, as he is said to be seen here, and sometimes again traversing the heaven with his torch, in case you are depicting the ether and the home of the gods." "Then, O Damis, painting is imitation?" "And what else could it be?" said he: "for if it did not effect that, it would voted to be an idle playing with colors." "And," said the other, "the things which are seen in heaven, whenever the clouds are torn away from one another, I mean the centaurs and stag-antelopes, yes, and the wolves too, and the horses, what have you got to say about them? Are we not to regard them as works of imitation?" "It would seem so," he replied. "Then, Damis, God is a painter, and has left his winged chariot, upon which he travels, as he disposes of affairs human and divine, and he sits down on these occasions to amuse himself by drawing these pictures, as children make figures in the sand." Damis blushed, for he felt that his argument was reduced to such an absurdity. But Apollonius, on his side, had no wish to humiliate him, for he was not unfeeling in his refutations of people, and said: "But I am sure, Damis, you did not mean that; rather that these figures flit through the heaven not only without meaning, but, so far as providence is concerned, by mere chance; while we who by nature are prone to imitation rearrange and create them in these regular figures." "We may, he said, "rather consider this to be the case, O Apollonius, for it is more probable, and a much sounder idea." "Then, O Damis, the mimetic art is twofold, and we may regard the one kind as an employment of the hands and mind in producing imitations, and declare that this is painting, whereas the other kind consists in making likenesses with the mind alone." "Not twofold," replied Damis, "for we ought to regard the former as the more perfect and more complete kind, being anyhow painting and a faculty of making likenesses with the help both of mind and hand; but we must regard the other kind as a department that, since its possessor perceives and imitates with the mind, without having the delineative faculty, and would never use his hand in depicting its objects." "Then," said Apollonius, "you mean, Damis, that the hand may be disabled by a blow or by disease?" "No," he answered, "but it is disabled, because it has never handled pencil nor any instrument or color, and has never learned to draw." "Then," said the other, "we are both of us, Damis, agreed that man owes his mimetic faculty to nature, but his power of painting to art. And the same would appear to be true of plastic art. But, methinks, you would not confine painting itself to the mere use of colors, for a single color was often found sufficient for this purpose by our older painters; and as the art advanced, it employed four, and later, yet more; but we must also concede the name of a painting to an outline drawn without any color at all, and composed merely of shadow and light. For in such designs we see a resemblance, we see form and expression, and modesty and bravery, although they are altogether devoid of color; and neither blood is represented, nor the color of a man's hair or beard; nevertheless these compositions in monochrome are likenesses of people either tawny or white, and if we drew one of these Indians with a pencil without color, yet he would be known for a negro, for his flat nose, and his stiff curling locks and prominent jaw, and a certain gleam about his eyes, would give a black look to the picture and depict an Indian to the eyes of all those who have intelligence. And for this reason I should say that those who look at works of painting and drawing require a mimetic faculty; for no one could appreciate or admire a picture of a horse or of a bull, unless he had formed an idea of the picture represented. Nor again could one admire a picture of Ajax, by the painter Timomachus, which represents him in a state of madness, unless one had conceived in one's mind first an idea or notion of Ajax, and had entertained the probability that after killing the flocks in Troy he would sit down exhausted and even meditate suicide. But these elaborate works of Porus we cannot, Damis, regard as works of brass founding alone, for they are cast in brass; so let us regard them as the chefs d' oeuvre of a man who is both painter and brass-founder at once, and as similar to the work of Hephaestus upon the shield of Achilles, as revealed in Homer. For they are crowded together in that work too men slaying and slain, and you would say that the earth was stained with gore, though it is made of brass." Trans. F.C. Conybeare (1912).

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Les éléphants, les chevaux, les soldats, les casques, les boucliers étaient en orichalque, en argent, en or, en airain noir; les lances, les javelots, les épées étaient en fer. On y remarquait tous les caractères des chefs-d'œuvre de Zeuxis, de Polygnote et d'Euphranor : harmonieuse distribution des ombres, vie des figures, science du relief et des enfoncements, tout cela se retrouvait dans ces sculptures, où le mélange des métaux produisait tous les effets des couleurs. [...] Cependant il dit à Damis : «Crois-tu qu'il y ait un art de peindre? - Oui, s'il y a une vérité. - Et que fait cet art ? - Il mêle les couleurs entre elles, le bleu avec le vert, le blanc avec le noir, le rouge avec le jaune. - Et pourquoi les peintres font-ils ce mélange? est-ce seulement pour donner à leurs tableaux de l'éclat, comme font les femmes qui se fardent? - C'est pour mieux imiter, pour mieux reproduire, par exemple, un chien, un cheval, un homme, un vaisseau et tout ce qu'éclaire le Soleil. La peinture va même jusqu'à représenter le Soleil, tantôt monté sur ses quatre chevaux, comme on dit qu'il apparaît ici, tantôt embrasant le ciel de ses rayons, et colorant l'éther et les demeures des dieux. - La peinture est donc l'art d'imiter? - Pas autre chose. Si elle n'était pas cela, elle ne ferait qu'un ridicule amas de couleurs assemblées au hasard. - Ce que nous voyons dans le ciel, alors que les nuages, se séparant, forment des centaures, des chimères, et même, par Jupiter ! des loups et des chevaux, ne sont-ce pas là des oeuvres d'imitation ? - Apparemment. - Dieu est donc peintre, Damis? il quitte donc le char ailé sur lequel il s'en va réglant toutes les choses divines et humaines, pour s'amuser à peindre des bagatelles, comme des enfants sur le sable ? » Damis rougit en voyant à quelle absurde conséquence aboutissait sa proposition. Cependant Apollonius ne le reprit point avec dédain, car il n'avait rien d'amer dans la discussion. « Ne veux-tu pas dire plutôt, Damis, que ces nuages courent au hasard à travers le ciel, sans rien représenter, du moins sans que Dieu en ait voulu faire des images, et que c'est nous, portés comme nous sommes à l'imitation, qui imaginons et créons ces images ? - C'est plutôt cela, Apollonius : c'est bien plus vraisemblable et plus conforme à la raison. - Il y a donc deux imitations, Damis, l'une qui consiste à représenter les objets à la fois avec l'esprit et avec la main, c'est la peinture; l'autre par laquelle l'esprit seul les représente? - Il n'y en a pas deux, dit Damis il n'y en a qu'une, laquelle est complète et s'appelle la peinture; c'est celle qui peut représenter les objets à la fois avec l'esprit et avec la main. L'autre n'est qu'une partie de celle-ci : c'est par elle que, sans être peintre, on conçoit et l'on se représente des figures; mais on serait incapable de les tracer avec la main.,- Est-ce parce que l'on est manchot ou estropié ? - Nullement, mais parce que l'on n'a jamais touché ni crayon, ni pinceau, ni couleurs, et qu'on n'a pas étudié la peinture. - Donc, Damis, nous sommes d'accord sur ce point que le génie de l'imitation vient de la nature, et la peinture, de l'art. Ce que nous avons dit pourrait de même s'appliquer à la sculpture. La peinture elle-même n'est pas toute, selon vous, je pense, dans le mélange des couleurs : car une seule couleur suffisait aux peintres anciens; ce n'est que plus tard qu'on en a employé quatre, puis un plus grand nombre. D'ailleurs, un dessin où sont marqués l'ombre et la lumière, même sans l'emploi des couleurs, n'est-ce pas de la peinture ? Dans de tels dessins, en effet, on voit la ressemblance, la figure, le caractère, la modestie ou la hardiesse : cependant la couleur y fait défaut, le teint n'y est pas représenté, ni le luisant de la chevelure ou de la barbe: avec une seule et même teinte le basané et le blanc se trouvent figurés. Par exemple, n'employons que le blanc pour peindre cet Indien, il paraîtra cependant noir : le nez camard, les cheveux crépus, les joues avancées et une certaine expression dans les yeux, tout cela noircit les traits que l'on voit blancs et représente un Indien à tout oeil un peu exercé. Aussi dirais-je volontiers que celui qui regarde un tableau doit avoir, lui aussi, la faculté d'imiter. On ne saurait, en effet, donner des éloges à une peinture figurant un cheval ou un taureau, si l'on ne se représente l'animal ainsi peint. Le moyen d'admirer l'Ajax furieux de Timomaque , si on ne le voit en esprit, après le massacre des troupeaux près de Troie, assis, désespéré, tout plein de la pensée du suicide? Quant à ces bas-reliefs de Porus, nous ne les classerons exclusivement ni parmi les sculptures, car on les dirait peints, ni parmi les peintures, car ils sont en métal; mais nous dirons que leur auteur était à la fois un peintre et un sculpteur. Il me fait penser à l'Héphaïstos d'Homère, et son oeuvre me rappelle le bouclier d'Achille : là aussi l'on voit des hommes qui tuent et des hommes qui meurent, et l'airain représente une terre ensanglantée.» Trad. A. Reinach (d'après A. Chassang, 1862).

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Commentary

  1. Philostratus lived from ca. 170 - 244/49 AD (see RE XX, 1 (1941), 139-141 s.v. "Philostratos"; De Lannoy, 1997, pp. 2362-2449; Bowie, 2009, pp. 19-32). He wrote the "Life of Apollonius of Tyana" sometime between 217 and 245 AD (on Apollonius of Tyana, see RE II, 1 (1895), 146 s.v. "Apollonios"; Bowie, 1978, pp. 1652-1699; Robiano, 1989, pp. 289-294 s.v. "Apollonios de Tyane"). This work was a commission from the Imperatrice Julia Domna (spouse of the Emperor Septimus Severus) who died in 217 AD. This is the first passage that outlines Philostratus' ideas about painting (the second one is in Book 6.19 – see below).
  2. Taxila is an ancient Bactrian city located in the district of Rawalpindi of the Punjab province in current day Pakistan. (On Taxila, see Marshall, 1951, pp. 222-229; Bernard, 1996, pp.505-514; Dar, 1998, pp. 88-90; about India : Jones, 2001, pp. 185-199). The bronze plates (nailed on the walls of the temple) picture the battle between Alexander and Porus the king of the Pauravas (RE 22 n. 1 (1953), s.v. "Poros", 1225-1228; Bieber, 1964, p. 36 n. 28a and pp. 41-42). The scene is identified by comparison with two decadrachm in the British Museum that depict Poros and Alexander (1926, 0402.1 and 1887, 0609.1; on the diffusion of classical art after Alexander the Great, see Boardman, 1994, pp. 75-145, esp. pp. 115-124).
  3. Following a tradition of ekphrasis that can be traced back to Homer’s description of Achilles’shield (Iliad 18), Philostratus focuses on describing the various colours (orichalch, silver, gold, black brass and iron) used on the bronze plates. Just like in painting, the colours are used in a way that makes the scene appear life-like (Dubel, 2006, pp. 178-179; Rouveret, 2006, pp. 27-28). Indeed, the high quality of the metalwork makes the image on the bronze plates resemble a painting in terms of the technique used; for instance, this applies to the proper distribution of shadows (τὸ εὔσκιον ἠσπάσαντο), the vivacity of the figures (ἔμπνους), and the rendering of hollows and reliefs (ἐσέχον τε καὶ ἐξέχον). These pictorial qualities that are given to the bronze plates are linked to three great painters of Classical Greece: Polygnotus (see texts 100-134), Zeuxis (see texts 199-256) and Euphranor (see texts 351-357).
  4. This description (ekprasis) is a pretext to move the text towards a dialogue between Apollonius and his apprentice Damis (about Damis: Bowie, 1978, pp. 1653-1671) in which Philostratus can express his ideas about the purpose of painting (starting with paragraph 22). The dialogue is composed of two parts: the first one is a "demonstration by contradiction" where Damis gives a very basic definition of painting as imitation (μίμησις οὖν ἡ γραφική) by colours and forms (see text 261); this is likened to truth (ἀλήθεια). The second part of the dialogue focuses on the notion of creativity or imagination which Philostratus sees as a condition that is necessary for artistic activity. Philostratus refers to the capacity to imagine more than the picture shows as a function of mimesis. To explain, mimesis is understood here as a tool through which images created in mind are express and recognized by the capacity to "represent (by an image) in mind" (τῷ νῷ εἰκάζειν) or "take up in mind" (the images) (ἀναλαμβάνω ἐς τὸν νοῦν). To illustrate, in this dialogue, Apollonius gives the example of how black and white drawings can suggest colours by means of the forms that objects take. In a more modern sense, he is referring to the "faculty of projection" of the viewer (Schweizer, 1934, pp. 386-400; Panofsky, 1989, pp. 27-48; Maffei, 1991, pp. 610-612; Crescenzo, 1999, pp. 35-38; Zagdoun, 2000, pp. 174-170; Gombrich, 2002, pp. 154-169; Rouveret, 2014, pp. 383-405). On the four-colour see text 5.
  5. The end of the dialogue (l.59-64) goes back to the bronze plates and strengthens the link between the plates and the Homeric description of Achilles' shield. The bronze plates are a perfect example of a well balanced work of art: they combine the colorful skills of a painting and the reliefs and hollows of a sculpture. This passage confirms that painting wasn't considered to be a major art anymore by the 3d Century AD (Rouveret, 2014, p. 418).
  6. Timomachos was a Byzantine painter (1st Century AD) and contemporary of Julius Cesar (see text 82; RE, II, 6.A1 (1936), s.v. "Timomachos", 1292-1294 (Lippold); Pliny,VII, 38, 1; XXXV, 40, 11; Ovide, Tristes, II, 525). On his Ajax, see Anth. Planud. IV, 83).
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Bibliography

Bernard, P. 1996, "L'Aornos bactrien et l'Aornos indien. Philostrate et Taxila : géographie, mythe et réalité", Topoi : Orient-Occident, 6 (2), pp. 475-530;

Bieber, M. , 1964, Alexander the Great in Greek and Roman Art, Argonaut, Chicago;

Boardman, J. 1994, The diffusion of classical art in antiquity, Thames and Hudson, Washington;

Bowersock, G.W. 1997, Fiction as history: Nero to Julian, California University Press, Berkeley-Los Angeles-Oxford;

Bowie, E. 1978, "Apollonius of Tyana : tradition and reality" Aufstieg und Niedergang der römischen Welt, II, 16.2, pp. 1652-1699;

Bowie, E. 2009, "Philostratus : the life of a sophist" in Bowie, E and Elsner J. (eds), Philostratus, Cambridge University Press,Cambridge , pp. 19-32;

Crescenzo, R. 1999, Peintures d'instruction. La postérité littéraire des Images de Philostrate en France de Blaise de Vigenère à l'époque classique, Droz, Genève;

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