Lindian Anagraphe 15, ll. 88-98 (ILindos 2 = Jacoby, FrGrHist 532 = Higbie 2003, no. XV, pp. 28-29) Τᾶν φυλᾶν ἑκάστα πίνακα [παναρχ]αϊκόν, ἐν ὧι ἦν | ἐζωγραφημένος φύλαρχος καὶ δρομεῖς ἐννῆ πάντες ἀρχαικῶς ἔχοντες τοῖς σχήμασι , ὧν ἕκα- στου ἐπεγέγραπτο τ[ᾶ]ι εἰκόνι τὸ ὄνομα· κ[αὶ] ἐ- πὶ τοῦ ἑνὸς τῶν π[ιν]ά[κ]ων ἐπεγέγραπτο· "Ἁλιαδᾶν φυλὰ νικάσ[ασ' ἀν]έθηκε τᾶι Λινδίαι Ἀθάναι ", ἐφ'ἑτέρου δέ · "Νίκας τόδ'ἐστι σᾶμα · τῶν Αὐτοχθόνων φυλὰ κρατήσασ' ἀγλάϊ[ξ]ε τὰ[ν] θεόν", ἐπὶ δὲ τοῦ τρίτου · "Τελχείνων φυλὰ νικῶσ'ἀνέθ[η-] κεν Ἀθάναι, Λυκωπάδας δὲ ὁ Λυγκέως παῖς ἐλαμ- παδράχει".

Each of the phylai: a most ancient pinax, on which was painted a phylarchos and nine dromeis, all holding archaic stances; on the image of each of them had been inscribed the name and on the first of the pinakes had been inscribed : " The phyle of the Haliadai, having conquered, dedicated [this] to Athana the Lindian". On the second " this is the sign of victory; the phyle of the Autochtones, having prevailed, adorned the goddess". On the third, "The phyle of the Telchines, conquering, dedicated [this] to Athana; Lykopadas, son of Lykeus was leader of the torchlight procession". (translation : Higbie 2003; slightly modified)

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Created by Valérie Toillon
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  • Spyridon Loumakis

Chacune des tribus : une pinax très ancienne sur laquelle est peint un phylarque avec neuf coureurs, tous figurés dans des postures archaïques, sur l'image de chacun d'eux est inscrit leur nom et sur la première des pinakes est inscrit : " La tribu des Haliadai, victorieuse, a dédié à Athana Lindia", sur la deuxième : " c'est le signe de la victoire, la tribu des Autochtones, ayant remporté le prix, a gratifié la déesse", sur la troisième : " la tribu des Telchines, victorieuse, a dédié à Athana; Lykopadas, fils de Lynkeus, a remporté le prix à la course aux flambeaux des garçons". (traduction : Reinach 1913, légèrement modifiée)

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Created by Valérie Toillon
Contributors:
  • Spyridon Loumakis

Commentary

  1. The Lindian Anagraphe (more often referred to, incorrectly, as the "Lindian Chronicle") is an inscription written on a marble stele, measuring 2.37m in height by 85cm in length, by 23cm in width (and not 32 cm in width as wrongly mentioned in Higbie 2003 -see Ryan 2007, p. 10, note 2-; currently housed in the National Museum of Denmark, in Copenhagen, inv. 21350). The inscription is written in a Doric (Rhodian) dialect and is dated in 99 BCE (when Teisylos, son of Sosikrates served as priest according to ILindos 1; his year of priesthood is dated with fair safety 57 years after that of the priest Philippos, son of Philippos who served in 42 BCE). The text was published for the first time by Chr. Blinkenberg in 1912 (and again, with corrections, in 1915 and 1941). Adolph Reinach consulted the first edition, two yeas before his death, and wrote a review with translation and commentary in his Revue épigraphique, where he described it as: "le document le plus remarquable que les fouilles danoises de Lindos aient apporté à l'épigraphie" (Reinach 1913, p. 96). He also correclty pointed out that the title given by the excavator to this remarkable inscription (i.e. Lindian Chronicle) does not fully correspond to its unique combination of a city decree, miracle records, lists of sacred offerings and historiographic information (Reinach 1913, p. 96). Finally, he understood its importance, stating that this inscription merits a place of honor in a future collection of Fragmenta Historicorum Gracorum (FHG) (Reinach 1913, p. 97). Karl Müller, the editor of the FHG, had died since 1894, and his work was replaced by that of Felix Jacoby, who, indeed, included the famous Lindian inscription in his Die Fragmente der griechischer Historiker (it can be found in Part 3.B, no. 532, which was published in 1954 and dedicated to the Geschichte von Städten und Völkern: Autoren über einzelne Städte). The most recent edition in English is the one by C. Higbie published in 2003 and in French that of Bresson published in 2006 (Blinkenberg, 1912; Blinkenberg 1915; Kinch K. F. and Blinkenberg, 1941; Higbie 2003 -for several mistakes in the translation see SEG LIII 821-; Bresson 2006 with a French translation; see also Chaniotis 1988, no. T13, pp. 52-57 on the considerable historiographic issues raised by this inscription).

  2. The text of the Lindian Anagraphe is divided into three parts:

    1) a decree which authorizes the writing (anagraphe) of the inscription by Thersagoras and Timachidas (A);

    2) a list of forty-five votive objects (only thirty-seven are preserved) dedicated to Athena Lindia (B-C);

    3) the tale of four miraculous apparitions (epiphaneiai) of the goddess, of which only three are preserved (D).

    Each entry in the catalog is ending by a citation of its sources (i.e. letters, public records, local histories, annals), and so do the tales of the epiphanies (Reinach 1913, p. 96; Higbie, 2003, pp. 155-203; Piettre, 2005, p. 97; Robert, 2015, pp. 12-13).

  3. In Antiquity, the "Anagraphe" was placed inside the pronaos (hall of the temple) of the Athena temple on the Acropolis of Lindos (a city of the island of Rhodes). The temple was excavated for the first time in 1902-1909 and in 1913-1914 by a Danish archaeological expedition, funded by the Carlsberg Foundation (Rathje and Lund 1991, pp. 39-40), which was resumed in 1952. The temple is dated between the sixth and the fourth century BCE. A new temple was built in the fourth century BCE after a fire that took place ca. 392/91 BCE. The temple was destroyed again during the Middle Ages and replaced by a cistern in the Ottoman period (Dyggve 1960, pp. 81-131, esp. pp. 112-115; Lippolis 1988-1989). The marble stele was found while excavating around the medieval church of Saint Stephen, close to its eastern part, having been used as a paving block for a medieval house (Blinkenberg 1912, p. 1; Blinkenberg 1915, p. 3; Ryan 2007, p. 9, note 1; not reused as a paving block for the church itself, as in Reinach 1913, p. 96; Shaya, 2002, pp. 13-15; Higbie, 2003, pp. 5-6).

  4. The text belongs to the list of votive offerings (B-C), more precisely under number fifteen. The paintings were certainly from the archaic time since the consecrations are listed in chronological order: from mythical times to the Hellenistic era (ca. 200 BCE). The offering of the paintings appears just after a list of votives dated from mythical times. One can suppose a dating around the sixth century BCE for the paintings (Higbie, 2003, pp. 163-164; Piettre, 2005, p. 97). Those paintings are lost, maybe destroyed by the fire of 392/1 BCE? But, nothing indicates that those paintings did not exist although some of the offerings were certainly imaginary (especially objects believed to be offerings by heroes such as Lindos, Heracles or Menelaos). In fact, the purpose of the Anagraphe is to preserve the most prestigious votive objects (real or not) and their inscriptions which "had been destroyed by the account of time" (l.4: dia ton chronon ephtarthai. On that point: Bresson, 2006, pp. 531-549; Robert, 2015, pp. 13-14. On the state of the treasury in 99 BCE: Shaya, 2002, pp. 199-208).

  5. Lists of offerings are not an exception. In fact, most temples in ancient times had one (Shaya, 2002, pp. 128-132). However, the Lindian Anagraphe is not a typical temple inventory, since not all the objects housed in the temple are listed on the stele. The chroniclers made a conscious choice: only the most prestigious objects (destroyed or not) are listed in it. This was made to claim the power and popularity of Lindos and its Athena temple by means of the offerings and epiphanies. In this way, the Lindian Anagraphe appears as a unique kind of genre, an idealistic catalog of objects and books which confirms the power and the divine presence of the goddess within the sanctuary (Reinach 1913, p. 96; Shaya, 2002, pp. 12-13, 132-149; 2005, pp. 428-434; Piettre, 2005; Bresson, 2006, pp. 531-549; Massar, 2006; Krumeich, 2008; Robert, 2015). Therefore, Francis Ryan has proposed the title “A Short Account of the Dedications to and the Epiphanies of Athena Lindia” or simply “the Stala of Athana Lindia” (the latter preserving the flavour of the Rhodian Doric dialect; Ryan 2007, pp. 61-62). The only other similar case, i.e. a list of legendary dedications in the temple of Apollon at Sikyon, is known only from a later (imperial Roman) written source, Ampelius (Liber memorialis 8.5) (Scheer 1996), without any trace in the epigraphic record. But, unlike the well-known examples of the Athenian and the Delian inventories, with their emphasis on delivering the dedications and holding accountable public officials, the Lindian Anagraphe can be grouped with the rest of the epigraphic evidence from the Greek East, which, in fact, gives a different picture: sometimes incomplete and unsystematic (Didymaion, near Miletos), sometimes exceptional (Heraion in Samos), and some other times fictional, bringing together mythical and real offerings (Lindos) (Dignas 2002).

  6. The gift listed in the Lindian Anagraphe consists of three pinakes "very old" (panarchaion), which celebrate a victory at games (probably a race). The last painting specifies that the runner named Lykopadas won the "torchlight procession" (lampadedromia). Torch races took place in Rhodes, and also in Athens in honor of Athena, Hephaistos, Prometheus, and Pan. Torch-racing was a characteristic of social elite, especially performed by ephebes ( Aristoph. Wasps, 1203-1204; Anecdota Graeca 1.277.22; Arrian, Anab. 3.16.9; Paus. 1.30.2; Harpocration s.v. "λαμπάς"; Schol. Aristoph. Frogs 131; Jüthner in RE XII (1) s.v. "λαμπαδηδρομία" 569-577; Van Straten, 1981; 1992, pp. 248-252; Sweet, 1987, pp. 32-33; Parker, 1997, pp. 163-164; p. 254 n. 127; Higbie, 2003; Burkert, 2011. In art: Metzger, 1965, pp. 70, 74-75. See votive reliefs, ca. 400-350 BCE, in the London British Museum 1895,1028.1 and 1864,0220.11). The composition of each painting is not clear: was it one phylarkhos (ruler of the tribe) with nine runners on each pinax? Or one phylarkhos with three runners on each pinax? Following the compilers, all the characters were pictured in an "archaic stance" (archaikos ... skhemasi) (Higbie, 2003, pp. 95-97). Perhaps the runners were pictured in a very rigid posture as one can find on archaic vase-painting (ca. 650-500 BCE), especially on Panathenaic amphorae. See for example a Panathenaic amphora (ca. 560-550 BCE) with three runners, housed in New York Metropolitan Museum of Art, inv. no. 1978.11.13 (On Panathenaic amphorae: Bentz, 1998).

  7. Each pinax is a dedication by a phyle (tribe) of Lindos: the Haliadai, the Autochtones, and the Telchines. Those tribal names are not the usual triad of Doric names and do not match with the names of the tribes known in Rhodes (Jones, 1980; Higbie, 2003, pp. 83-85). These tribal names seem to be related to the mythical past of Lindos and Rhodes. In fact, the Haliadai refer to the cult of the sun (Helios) in Rhodes, since they consider themselves as the descendants of the god Helios and the Nymph Rhodos. The Autochtones refer to the idea of inhabitants who were always present on the land of Lindos, claiming to be born from the earth itself. And, the Telchines are the first -mythical- inhabitants of Rhodos, mysterious makers of magical objects (Strabo, 14.2.7; Diod. Sic. 5.55-57; Higbie, 2003, pp. 93-97, 185. On the mythical past of Lindos: Higbie, 2003, pp. 210-222).

  8. The sources cited by the compilers are: Gorgon (Athen. Deipn. 15.696f; Jacoby, FGrH 3.B 515, pp. 490-491; Jacoby, 1910; RE VII s.v. "Gorgon", 1656) and Xenagoras (Jacoby, FGrH 2.B 1 and 2, 240, pp. 1000-1005 and pp. 702-703), both local writers (Higbie, 2003, pp. 188-203; Robert, 2015, pp. 14-15).

  9. Dedicatory plaques or, in Greek pinax (pl. pinakes), were small in size and rectangular in shape. They were made of various materials (stone, ivory, metal, terracotta or wood) and are very common votive offerings. Clay pinakes are more common due to the durability of the material. Votive clay pinakes are often painted in the same technique as vase-painting. In fact, clay pinakes were made into potter workshops and by potters themselves (see for example text 81, and the pinakes found in Penteskouphia, near Corinth; or in Perachora, Athens, Epidaurus. See: Rouse, 1975; Van Straten, 1981, pp. 78-104; 1990; Karoglou, 2010).

Annotation Authors and Editors
Created by Valérie Toillon
Contributors:
  • Spyridon Loumakis

Tags

  • lindos
  • anagraph
  • athena
  • pinax
  • pinakes
  • runners
  • lampadedromia
  • votive
  • offerings

Bibliography

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Annotation Authors and Editors
Created by Valérie Toillon
Contributors:
  • Spyridon Loumakis